Skip to main content

Full text of "Santa Fe National Historic Trail: Comprehensive Management and Use Plan"

See other formats


Clemson University 



3 1604 019 780 933 



SANTA FE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 

comprehensive management and use plan 

PUBLIC 00CUME*Tf 

AUG 281990 
CLEMSON 




AkiLAiiUAkiii 



Akikkkikikik 



1AMAAAAAAAAAAMA tJJdJtAikiiAAiAA 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/santafenationalhOOnati 



comprehensive management and use plan 



may 1990 




SANTA FE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 



MISSOURI, KANSAS, OKLAHOMA, COLORADO, NEW MEXICO 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR / NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



SUMMARY 



The Santa Fe Trail was the first of America's 
great trans-Mississippi routes. The trail, 
including the Mountain and Cimarron routes, 
crossed over 1,200 miles of the central and 
southwestern United States, from Franklin, 
Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico. The trail 
played a critical role in the westward expansion 
of the United States, and for more than half a 
century (1821-1880) it was an important two- 
way avenue for commerce and cultural 
exchanges. 

The Santa Fe Trail was designated as a national 
historic trail by Congress in 1987, in accor- 
dance with the National Trails System Act. The 
trail is to be administered by the National Park 
Service (NPS), in cooperation with state and 
local jurisdictions, interested groups, and private 
landowners. The designated route extends from 
a point near Franklin, Missouri, to Santa Fe, 
New Mexico, and includes the Mountain and 
Cimarron routes. This Comprehensive Manage- 
ment and Use Plan for the Santa Fe National 
Historic Trail presents a plan for the protection, 
historical interpretation, recreational use, and 
management of the trail corridor. 

The purpose of the National Trails System Act 
is "to provide for the outdoor recreation needs 
of an expanding population" and "to promote 
the preservation of, public access to, travel 
within, and enjoyment and appreciation of the 
open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of 
the nation." 

The comprehensive plan will seek to balance 
resource preservation and visitor use along the 
trail. The trail is 90 percent privately owned, 
and the National Park Service must rely on the 
cooperative management efforts and support of 
state, local, and private interests, including 
landowners, to ensure the protection of trail- 
related resources, to provide outdoor recre- 
ational opportunities, and to accomplish the 
objectives of the interpretive programs. 

Within this partnership the Park Service will 
work to ensure that the trail is managed as a 



single, integrated resource, with the plan 
providing overall guidance for trail manage- 
ment. The Park Service will encourage the 
implementation of a coordinated trailwide 
marketing and promotion plan in cooperation 
with the five trail states. 

Cooperative trail protection and development 
efforts will be stimulated and encouraged by 
the National Park Service through a combina- 
tion of incentives, including an official certifi- 
cation and marking process for nonfederal sites, 
segments, or interpretive programs. Technical 
assistance will be offered in the areas of 
resource protection, interpretation, or design, 
along with limited financial assistance to 
encourage land acquisition, resource protection, 
recreational and interpretive media develop- 
ment, maintenance, or management of the trail. 
Trail managers, cooperating landowners, and 
others may have status as Volunteers-in-the- 
Parks (VIPs), as well as recreational liability 
protection under state laws. Preservation efforts 
will be encouraged through tax incentives for 
commercial operations. 

Trail segments, historic sites, or interpretive 
programs on nonfederal land will be officially 
recognized and included as part of the Santa Fe 
National Historic Trail only if they are 
certified. Resources will have to be documented 
by the owner or other appropriate sponsor in a 
brief, but comprehensive application; manage- 
ment objectives for the site or segment will be 
established; and management responsibilities for 
each nonfederal site or segment will be defined. 
Segments or sites will not be officially certified 
unless the necessary environmental compliance 
procedures have been undertaken, with qualified 
technical assistance provided as needed. Decer- 
tification may occur when a site, segment, or 
program is not being managed according to the 
certification agreement. National recognition can 
also be obtained by nominating and having a 
site or segment listed on the National Register 
of Historic Places. 



in 



Summary 



The primary route of the Santa Fe Trail, the 
Cimarron and the Mountain routes, as well as 
the major branches, have been mapped. A total 
of 194 historic sites and landmarks, plus 30 
route segments where wagon ruts are still 
evident, have been initially identified as 
significant and having "high potential" for 
quality interpretation or recreation. Official 
markers will be placed along certified or pro- 
tected segments of the historic route to perma- 
nently establish the location of the trail in 
many places where no visible ruts or other 
traces remain, as well as along the visible parts 
of the route. No markers will be erected on 
nonfederally owned land without the owner's 
consent. 

To ensure the protection of resources along the 
trail, all cultural, natural, and scenic resources 
will be inventoried and analyzed to determine 
appropriate and required protection and preser- 
vation techniques, especially stabilization 
measures, and the potential for recreation or 
interpretation. For significant resources on 
nonfederal land, the National Park Service will 
offer technical assistance, as requested, to help 
protect these resources. This will include 
technical assistance under the national historic 
landmark program and the NPS rivers and trails 
conservation assistance program, as well as 
grants through the NPS Historic Preservation 
Fund. Preservation efforts by commercial 
operations will be encouraged through tax 
incentives. Further research will also be fostered 
to improve knowledge, understanding, and 
appreciation of trail resources and the overall 
historical significance of the trail. 

Visitor services and developments arising from 
the plan will be certified (if provided by 
nonfederal entities) where they arc in harmony 



with the protection of the resources, they fulfill 
desired recreational or interpretive needs, and 
they meet other objectives. An integrated inter- 
pretive system will be developed to promote a 
full range of opportunities for public enjoyment, 
appreciation, and understanding of the trail. 
Elements of the basic or core interpretive 
program will include a unified wayside exhibit 
system; NPS-produced or -approved publica- 
tions, films, and audiocassettes; NPS educa- 
tional activities; and interpretive programs 
at NPS units along the trail. To enhance the 
core interpretive program, the National Park 
Service will seek to provide various levels of 
interpretive program or media assistance to 
qualifying federal, state, or local agencies and 
groups that provide or plan to provide appro- 
priate trail programs at facilities they operate. 

To provide for recreational opportunities to 
retrace the trail, short- and long-distance trails 
for hiking, horseback riding, and occasionally 
driving wagons will be encouraged along 
appropriate trail route segments. Where trail 
ruts are still visible (approximately 15 percent 
of the route), no hiking or horseback riding on 
the ruts will be condoned unless environmental 
conditions or use levels indicate that the 
historic resources will not be adversely affected. 
An automobile tour route paralleling the trail 
on modern highways will also be designated. 
The National Park Service will encourage state 
and local governments, private groups, land- 
owners, and federal land-managing agencies 
along the route to help establish and maintain 
the trails. 

Guidelines will be prepared to help control or 
prevent uses that might impair resource 
integrity, public appreciation, and landowner 
cooperation. 



IV 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 1 

PURPOSE OF AND NEED FOR THE PLAN 3 
BACKGROUND 3 

LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIRECTIONS 3 
PLANNING 5 
MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES 6 

Resource Protection 6 

Visitor Use 6 

Development 7 

Management and Cooperation 7 

HISTORY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SANTA FE TRAIL 8 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT AND USE PLAN 11 

OVERVIEW 13 

THE HISTORIC ROUTE AND SIGNIFICANT RESOURCES 14 

HISTORIC ROUTE 14 

MAJOR HISTORIC BRANCHES 15 

HISTORIC SITES AND ROUTE SEGMENTS 16 

NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM AREAS 19 

Fort Larned National Historic Site, Kansas 19 
Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site, Colorado 20 
Fort Union National Monument, New Mexico 20 
Pecos National Monument, New Mexico 20 

NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM AREAS 20 

Cimarron National Grassland, Kansas, and Kiowa National 

Grassland, New Mexico 20 
Comanche National Grassland, Colorado 20 
Santa Fe National Forest, New Mexico 20 

MARKING THE TRAIL 20 

RESOURCE PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT 22 
RESOURCE PROTECTION 22 

Cooperative Agreement 24 

Easement 24 

Fee-Simple Ownership 24 

Regulatory Processes 25 
RESEARCH 26 

VISITOR USE 28 

INTERPRETATION 28 

Interpretive Theme and Subthemes 28 
NPS Core Interpretive Programs 29 
Complementary Interpretive Programs 35 



Contents 



VISITOR USE (cont.) 

VISITOR USES ALONG THE TRAIL 37 

Hiking and Horseback-Riding Trails 37 

Auto Tour Route 38 

Compatibility Guidelines 41 
SITE DEVELOPMENT 41 
LIABILITY 41 
TRAIL CARRYING CAPACITY 42 

MANAGEMENT AND COOPERATION 43 

COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 43 
SITE/SEGMENT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES 44 
TRAIL MARKING PROCEDURES 45 

MARKETING 47 

COMPLIANCE 49 

FUNDING 50 

ADMINISTRATION 50 
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE 50 
DEVELOPMENT/PRESERVATION 50 
LIMITED FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 50 



THE SANTA FE TRAIL ENVIRONMENT 51 

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT 53 
PHYSIOGRAPHY 53 
CLIMATE 53 
VEGETATION 54 
WILDLIFE 54 

THREATENED OR ENDANGERED SPECIES 54 
FLOODPLAINS/WETLANDS 56 
PRIME AND UNIQUE FARMLANDS 56 

CULTURAL RESOURCES 57 

SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 58 
LANDOWNERSHIP AND USE 58 
ACCESS AND TRANSPORTATION 58 
POPULATION 58 
REGIONAL ECONOMY 60 
RECREATION 60 

VISITOR USE AND EXISTING INTERPRETATION 61 

CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 62 



VI 



Contents 
APPENDIXES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, PLANNING TEAM / CONSULTANTS 63 

APPENDIX A: LEGISLATION 65 

APPENDIX B: STATE RECREATIONAL LIABILITY LAWS 82 

APPENDIX C: HIGH-POTENTIAL HISTORIC SITES AND ROUTE SEGMENTS 

ALONG THE SANTA FE TRAIL 90 
APPENDIX D: MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE AND THE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE FOR 

MUTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF PLANT MATERIALS FOR REVEGETATION 1 1 1 
APPENDIX E: TRAIL USE GUIDELINES 1 14 
APPENDIX F: RECOMMENDED SIGNS 117 

APPENDIX G: PROVISIONS FOR COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT 123 
APPENDIX H: REQUEST FORM FOR SITE/SEGMENT CERTIFICATION 130 
APPENDIX I: THREATENED OR ENDANGERED ANIMAL AND PLANT 

SPECIES 132 

GLOSSARY 137 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 139 

PLANNING TEAM AND CONSULTANTS 141 



MAPS 



National Trails System 4 
Historic Route 17 
Interpretive Regions 32 
Auto Tour Route 39 



TABLES 



1: Mileage of the Santa Fe National Historic Trail by State 15 

2: Federally Protected Components and Potentially Qualified Components of the Santa 

Fe National Historic Trail 16 

3: Trailwide Interpretive Topics, Subthemes, and Key Points 30 

4: Interpretive Regions, Subthemes, and Key Points 33 

5: Selected Wildlife Species along the Santa Fe National Historic Trail Route 55 

6: Prime Farmlands 56 

7: Location and Ownership of Historic Sites 57 

8: Location and Ownership of Route Segments 57 

9: Population of Cities along the Santa Fe National Historic Trail 59 

10: Counties Crossed by the Santa Fe National Historic Trail 59 

11: Recreation Facilities along the Santa Fe National Historic Trail 60 

12: Annual Visitation to National Park System Areas 61 



vn 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The National Park Service thanks the many indi- 
viduals who, in the interest of historical accuracy, 
generously shared their knowledge of trail history 
and resources during the course of planning for the 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail. The participation of 
these people has improved the plan and will serve 
the Santa Fe Trail and future generations well. 



INTRODUCTION 



'~Sr3gk 




Independence was full of Sana Fe men. Mules, horses, oxen and wagons 
at every corner. Groups of hardy looking men about the stores. 

Francis Parkman 



PURPOSE OF AND NEED FOR THE PLAN 



BACKGROUND 

The importance of the Santa Fe Trail has long 
been recognized, and the 1968 National Trails 
System Act (Public Law 90-543) listed it as 
one of 14 trails to be studied for possible 
designation as either a national scenic or 
recreation trail. In 1976 the former Bureau of 
Outdoor Recreation determined that the Santa 
Fe Trail was nationally significant and merited 
recognition for the role it played in the 
westward expansion of the United States. 
However, the trail did not meet the legislative 
criteria for designation as a national scenic trail. 

In 1978 a new category for national historic 
trails was created. To qualify as a national 
historic trail, a trail must meet the following 
criteria: 

• It must have been established by historic 
use, and it must be historically significant 
as a result of that use. 

• It must be of national significance with 
respect to American history. 

• It must have significant potential for public 
recreational use or historical interest, based 
on historic interpretation and appreciation. 

The Santa Fe Trail clearly met these criteria, as 
supported by National Park Service (NPS) 
testimony in 1986 and 1987 before House and 
Senate subcommittees. Various organizations, 
such as the Santa Fe Trail Association, and 
individuals worked diligently to ensure passage 
of the national historic trail legislation for the 
Santa Fe Trail. On May 8, 1987, President 
Ronald Reagan signed Public Law 100-35 (an 
amendment to the National Trails System Act) 
to establish the Santa Fe National Historic Trail 
(see appendix A). 

The designated trail, including the Mountain 
and Cimarron routes, extends approximately 
1,200 miles from Old Franklin, Missouri, 
through Kansas, Oklahoma, and Colorado to 



Santa Fe, New Mexico. The Cimarron route is 
865 miles; the Mountain route, 909 miles. 



LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE 
DIRECTIONS 

The purpose of the National Trails System Act 
is "to provide for the outdoor recreation needs 
of an expanding population" and "to promote 
the preservation of, public access to, travel 
within, and enjoyment and appreciation of the 
open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of 
the nation." 

Generally, national trails are established and 
managed through the cooperative efforts of 
federal, state, and local governments, private 
landowners, and cooperating groups. The 
National Park Service, as the designated 
administering agency for the Santa Fe National 
Historic Trail, will help ensure that the trail is 
appropriately marked, protected, interpreted, and 
developed by coordinating and monitoring the 
efforts of many governmental agencies and 
various private sector interests. A certification 
process, limited financial assistance, and other 
incentives will be used by the Park Service to 
help achieve the trail's purposes. The responsi- 
bilities for managing the trail will be in the 
hands of state and local governments, private 
landowners, and organizations, except for those 
parts of the trail that are federally owned and 
managed. 

The National Trails System Act includes the 
following provisions, among others (see 
appendix A): 

• the role of federal agencies in trail 
management 

• the role of a trail advisory council 

• the official process for mapping the trail 
route 

• permitted trail uses 




POTOMAC HERITAGE 




OVERMOUNTAIN VICTORY 



DESIGNATED HISTORIC TRAIL 

^^— _ »^_ DESIGNATED SCENIC TRAIL 
OOOOOOOO SANTA FE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 



NATIONAL TRAILS SYSTEM 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT 01 1HI INTERIOR NATIONAI PARK SERVICE 

624 I 20003 
DSC I NOV OS 



Purpose of and Need for the Plan 



• the role of interpretive sites 

• the role of federal technical and financial 
assistance 

• the role of the federal government and 
others in land acquisition or cooperative 
agreements 

• the role of volunteers in trail management 

To provide an overall management framework 
for the Santa Fe National Historic Trail, a com- 
prehensive management and use plan must be 
prepared, as required by the National Trails 
System Act, as amended. Among other items, 
the plan is to include the following: 

• specific objectives and practices to be 
observed in managing the trail, including 
the identification of all significant natural, 
historical, and cultural resources to be 
preserved, and details of any anticipated 
cooperative agreements to be consummated 
with state and local governmental agencies 
or private interests 

• the process to be followed in marking the 
trail 

• protection measures for any "high potential 
historic sites" or "high potential route 
segments" (for definitions refer to National 
Trails System Act [NTS A], sec. 12, in 
appendix A). 

• general and site-specific development plans 

PL 100-35 further specifies that land or inter- 
ests in land outside existing boundaries of 
federally administered areas can be acquired for 
the national historic trail only with the owner's 
consent: 

No lands or interests therein outside the 
exterior boundaries of any federally ad- 
ministered area may be acquired by the 
Federal Government for the Santa Fe 
Trail except with the consent of the 
owner thereof. Before acquiring any ease- 
ment or entering into any cooperative 



agreement with a private landowner with 
respect to the trail, the Secretary [of the 
Interior] shall notify the landowner of the 
potential liability, if any, for injury to the 
public resulting from physical conditions 
which may be on the landowner's land. 

This requirement is a one-time notice to the 
landowner of a potential problem with public 
access and does not imply any federal indem- 
nification (House Report 100-16). In any event, 
each of the five trail states has statutes that 
may protect landowners from recreational use 
liability (see appendix B). This and other ap- 
propriate information will be provided to land- 
owners by the National Park Service. Also, the 
Volunteers in the Parks Act of 1969 provides 
a way for the federal government to protect co- 
operating landowners from such liability claims. 

In addition to the legislative requirements 
discussed above, the comprehensive plan is also 
to describe and analyze the following: 

• management strategies for resource 
preservation 

• interpretation and visitor use development 

• marketing and tourism opportunities 

• appropriate levels and types of visitor use 

• responsibilities for resource preservation, 
interpretation, visitor use, development, 
operations, and maintenance of trail sites 
and markers 

• certification procedures for nonfederal trail 
sites, segments, or interpretive programs 

PLANNING 

In developing this Comprehensive Management 
and Use Plan, the National Park Service sought 
the views of American Indian groups, various 
organizations, landowners, and individuals, as 
well as federal, state, and local agencies. In 
October 1987 a planning newsletter was distri- 
buted to interested parties requesting input on 



INTRODUCTION 



ways to help manage, protect, and develop the 
trail. Nine public meetings were held along the 
trail in November 1987 to elicit preliminary 
concerns and ideas. Based on the initial public 
input, draft management objectives were pre- 
pared and presented to the public in an April 
1988 planning newsletter. 

During the spring of 1988, NPS personnel and 
contract consultants undertook the mapping of 
the trail route and the identification of signifi- 
cant trail sites and segments. In October 1988 
the secretary of the interior appointed members 
of the Santa Fe National Historic Trail 
Advisory Council. 

The Draft Comprehensive Management and Use 
Plan and Environmental Assessment was distri- 
buted to the public, governmental agencies, 
organizations, and individuals in May 1989. A 
draft Map Supplement was also made available 
for review and comment. 

Ten public meetings were held along the trail 
in May and June, and written comments were 
received during the public review period (May 
12 to June 16, 1989). The Santa Fe National 
Historic Trail Advisory Council met on June 
21-22, 1989, and on November 6-7, 1989, to 
provide additional input and recommendations 
for NPS consideration before this final plan was 
prepared and approved. 



MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES 

Management objectives have been developed for 
the Santa Fe National Historic Trail to provide 
a framework that enables the Park Service, trail 
managers, cooperating landowners, organiza- 
tions, and individual trail supporters to mutually 
work toward fulfilling the trail's legislative 
purposes, while applying NPS policies and 
procedures. Management objectives identify 
desired ends, while the plan itself addresses the 
means by which the ends will be achieved. 

The objectives center on four general subject 
areas. However, the plan elements must clearly 
address more specific and complex issues and 
their resolution, and as a result, subject 



headings do not always correlate. Each plan 
element meets one or more management objec- 
tives, and sometimes objectives listed under 
different subject areas. 

The following objectives have guided the 
development of the plan and will be used by 
the National Park Service and others to guide 
plan implementation and to measure progress. 



Resource Protection 

Implement measures as necessary to protect 
significant route segments and historic sites. 

Encourage research to improve knowledge, 
understanding, and appreciation of trail re- 
sources and their overall significance. 

Promote the protection of significant cultural 
and natural resources along the route of the 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail; help protect 
resources from overuse, vandalism, and inap- 
propriate use; and promote compatible adjacent 
uses. 



Visitor Use 

Promote appropriate outdoor recreation, public 
enjoyment, appreciation, and understanding of 
the Santa Fe Trail and related sites, as well as 
branch trails. 

Emphasize the interpretation of the human side 
of the trail's history, including the multi- 
cultural influences and affiliations that were a 
part of the trail's rich legacy. 

Encourage interpretive activities and programs, 
including media, that are based on historical or 
archeological examination and documentation. 

Develop a thematic framework to allow for 
consistent and coordinated interpretation by 
various managing entities along the trail, and 
promote coordinated interpretive efforts among 
national park system sites along the trail. 



Purpose of and Need for the Plan 



Provide visitors with opportunities to see and 
appreciate actual remnants of the trail and 
related sites, and to retrace the trail route; 
facilitate access to trail sites where appropriate. 

Provide each visitor with the opportunity for a 
safe and enjoyable experience. 

Ensure public understanding of the roles of the 
various entities that may administer and manage 
the trail and related sites, and foster visitor 
respect for the rights of landowners. 

Provide access to programs and facilities for 
special populations (e.g., disabled or non- 
English speaking visitors). 

Control or prevent uses of the trail and related 
sites that impair resource integrity and public 
appreciation. 



Development 

Mark the historic and auto tour trail routes with 
standardized and recognizable markers. 

Provide the minimum facilities necessary and 
environmentally compatible to allow for the 
enjoyment and protection of resources. 

Encourage the adoption of a unified design 
theme for signs, exhibits, and public use 
facilities when appropriate. 

Restore the setting of trail segments or sites 
where economically feasible. 

Encourage and stimulate appropriate develop- 
ment by state and local governments, or others. 



Management and Cooperation 

Define proper roles and responsibilities for the 
National Park Service and other managing 
entities. 

Coordinate efforts at all levels to fulfill the 
purposes of the Santa Fe National Historic 



Trail, as stated in the National Trails System 
Act, as amended. 

Coordinate and stimulate efforts to manage the 
trail, consistent with the Comprehensive Man- 
agement and Use Plan. 

Promote state, county, local, and individual par- 
ticipation in interpretation, preservation, and 
development along the trail, consistent with the 
objectives of the National Trails System Act, as 
amended. 

Develop effective partnerships with and between 
managing entities, the Santa Fe Trail Associa- 
tion, private landowners, trail supporters, and 
private organizations, as well as federal, state, 
and local agencies. 

Promote the management or development of 
the whole trail in ways that enhance its 
integrity as a single, integrated system and that 
transcend the overlying political boundaries and 
geographic divisions. 

Consult with the Santa Fe National Historic 
Trail Advisory Council on matters related to 
trail administration. 

Certify official trail segments and sites when 
such recognition is justified and consistent with 
the purposes of the National Trails System Act, 
as amended. 

Authorize use of the official national historic 
trail symbol in conjunction with appropriate 
interpretive activities, programs, information 
materials, and appropriate fund-raising activities. 

Use existing NPS staff resources along the trail 
to assist in furthering the purposes of the trail. 
Provide technical assistance, support, or limited 
financial assistance for efforts to further the 
purposes of the national historic trail. 

Encourage coordinated efforts to promote 
appropriate trail-related tourism along the entire 
trail route. 

Provide for appropriate fund-raising and dona- 
tion programs to help further trail purposes. 



HISTORY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SANTA FE TRAIL 



The Santa Fe Trail linked various routes that 
were first followed by American Indians, then 
by Spanish, Mexican, and American frontiers- 
men. It eventually developed into the first 
major trans-Mississippi route between the 
eastern United States and the American South- 
west. The trail played a critical role in the 
westward expansion of the United States, as 
well as trade relations with Mexico. For a 
quarter century, from 1821 to 1846, it was an 
international trade route, carrying needed 
material goods from Missouri to northern 
Mexico and bringing silver, furs, mules, and 
wool to Missouri. It also fostered an exchange 
among the Spanish, Indian, and American 
cultures. After the United States acquired 
Mexico's northern provinces in 1848, the trail 
continued as a major link between regions, and 
American social institutions were extended into 
the Southwest. 

Indian trade fairs at Pecos and Taos among 
Pueblo and Plains Indians introduced Spanish 
residents to native products, and the Spanish 
began to participate in the fairs. While New 
Mexicans remained active in trade along the 
southern routes from Santa Fe to Chihuahua, 
they also became increasingly familiar with the 
numerous trails on the eastern slopes of the 
Rockies and the western Great Plains. However, 
merchants in Chihuahua dominated the larger 
trade fairs along the Camino Real in Mexico 
and controlled much of the commerce in New 
Mexico. In due course French and American 
traders defied Spain's closed door policy in her 
northern Mexico provinces and searched for 
ways to trade with Santa Fe and beyond. This 
resulted in patrols by Spanish and Pueblo 
soldiers in the late 1700s and early 1800s to 
search for contraband. Traders that were caught 
had their trade goods confiscated, and some 
were imprisoned. 

After independence from Spain in 1821, 
Mexican administrators removed legal barriers 
to commercial exchange on the New Mexican 
frontier. In that same year William Becknell 
and a small party from Missouri arrived in 



New Mexico to trade, and his party was fol- 
lowed almost immediately by two other trading 
parties to New Mexico. In 1822 Becknell 
opened a wagon route from Franklin, Missouri, 
to Santa Fe, following what later became 
known as the Cimarron route; this was the only 
wagon trail to New Mexico until the 1840s, 
when the Mountain route was opened to traffic. 

The decade of the 1820s saw New Mexican 
officials encourage American merchants to take 
part in trade with Mexico. Beginning in 1824 
Chihuahuan and New Mexican merchants 
became involved along the trail from Santa Fe 
to Missouri, and from 1823 to 1825 a delega- 
tion of Mexican merchants was in Washington, 
D.C., sent by New Mexican Governor 
Bartolome Baca, to negotiate commercial 
agreements for New Mexico. Simultaneously 
Missouri traders headed toward Santa Fe with 
trade goods. Encouraged by Mexican officials, 
this legal commerce began the decades-long 
exchange across the plains. The U.S. 
government conducted a survey of the route in 
1825, starting from Fort Osage. The govern- 
ment also made treaties with Indian tribes near 
the eastern end of the trail, and beginning in 
1829 military protection was occasionally 
offered to trading parties. New Mexican troops 
and Pueblo soldiers also helped protect the 
traders in 1829 and again in 1843. 

The major eastern commercial terminus of the 
Santa Fe Trail was St. Louis, but commodities 
were shipped up the Missouri River before 
being transferred to wagons for the trip to 
Santa Fe. The earliest wagon trains left from 
Franklin, Missouri; other river towns, such as 
Arrow Rock and Lexington, were also points of 
departure. By the early 1830s, however, most 
traffic on the trail began at Independence, 
Missouri, which remained the major outfitting 
point until the 1840s, when Westport and Fort 
Leavenworth became the primary points of de- 
parture. The vicinity of present-day Council 
Grove, Kansas, was the major point of rendez- 
vous for caravans organizing for the trip 
westward. 



History and Significance of the Santa Fe Trail 



During the trail's early years the first settlement 
in New Mexico for westbound traders was San 
Miguel del Vado, which served for a time as a 
port of entry. In 1835 Las Vegas, New Mexico, 
was founded and replaced San Migeul as the 
first New Mexican settlement. 

For those traveling eastward from New Mexico, 
the area near La Junta (later Watrous), where 
the Cimarron and Mountain routes separated, 
was the major point of rendezvous to organize 
for the trip to Missouri. 

The Santa Fe Trail quickly became a lucrative 
trade route far into Mexico, aiding both 
Mexico's northern provinces and the depressed 
economy of Missouri. This route tied the 
Chihuahua Trail to the Boonslick Road via the 
Santa Fe Trail (which included the older Osage 
Trace in Missouri), thus adding to a network of 
international roads and trails. By the early 
1840s, Mexican merchants dominated the trade 
moving in both directions along the route of 
commerce. Merchants such as Don Antonio 
Jose Chavez, his brother Don Jose Chavez y 
Castillo, and the Chavez in-laws, Juan Perea 
and Juan Otero, provided keen competition for 
American traders like William and James 
Glasgow, James and Robert Aull, and J. J. 
Webb, who were trying to establish a greater 
commercial trade role. 

New Mexican families, such as the Ortiz, 
Delgado, Armijo, and Chavez, sent their chil- 
dren over the trail to be educated in the United 
States, and many of these families maintained 
their economic and political leadership during 
New Mexico's territorial period. The families 
joined other Mexican merchants in fostering the 
international trading system. Likewise, Ameri- 
can families used the trail. Mary Dodson 
Donoho, with her husband and infant daughter, 
was the first Anglo-American woman in Santa 
Fe, arriving in 1833. Other American women 
who traveled the route and recorded their 
journeys include Susan Shelby Magoffin (1846) 
and Marian Sloan Russell (1850s and 1860s). 

Gradually multinational partnerships emerged, 
which benefited many. Yet despite cultural 
exchanges, economic competition developed 



between Mexican and American merchants and 
between Mexico and the United States. In 1845 
American interests persuaded the U.S. Congress 
to help offset inherent Mexican advantages by 
passing the Drawback Act to allow Americans 
to compete more equally with their Mexican 
counterparts. Pueblo Indians during this time 
tended to affiliate with Mexican rather than 
American traders because of language barriers. 

During the war between Mexico and the United 
States (1846-48), Brig. Gen. Stephen W. 
Kearny led the Army of the West from Fort 
Leavenworth via the Santa Fe Trail to Bent's 
Fort and over Raton Pass to the town of Las 
Vegas, New Mexico, where he expected to face 
a New Mexican army. (The Mormon Battalion 
and other elements of the army later used the 
Cimarron route.) Kearny proclaimed annexation 
of New Mexico by the United States on the 
Las Vegas plaza and continued cautiously on 
to Santa Fe. Governor Manuel Armijo had 
organized a resistance force at Cafloncito, but 
he withdrew in advance of the approaching U.S 
forces. Kearny entered Santa Fe and raised the 
U.S. flag over the Palace of the Governors. 
After his departure, Lt. Col. Sterling Price 
remained to provide military support to the 
Kearny-appointed governor, Charles Bent. 

Resistance to the U.S. occupation assumed the 
nature of guerilla warfare, including the January 
1847 insurrection at Taos, Mora, and other New 
Mexican communities. Charles Bent was killed 
during the uprising at Taos and was succeeded 
by Donaciano Vigil. The war ended with Treaty 
of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848, and the United 
States gained almost half of Mexico, including 
present New Mexico, Arizona, California, 
Nevada, Utah, and parts of Colorado, 
Wyoming, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Texas. 

Following the war, the volume of traffic on the 
Santa Fe Trail rose considerably, and some as- 
pects changed. Emigrants began to follow the 
trail to the Southwest, although it was primarily 
a route of commerce. The interior of Mexico 
remained the ultimate goal for many traders, as 
it had since Santa Fe was saturated with goods 
in 1824, but teamsters also began to convey 
more and more military supplies. These sup- 



INTRODUCTION 



plies made up most of the freight, since the 
U.S. Army had responsibility for protecting the 
American Southwest. Military posts established 
along the route included Fort Mann (1847), 
Fort Atkinson (1850), Fort Union (1851), Fort 
Larned (1859), and Fort Lyon (1860). Each 
post required supplies and provided protection 
for caravans on the trail, with over 1,800 
wagons crossing the plains in 1858 alone. 

Indian traders also used the commercial route, 
and Bent's Fort (1833-49) on the Arkansas 
River in southeast Colorado symbolized that 
trade. In 1853 William Bent opened Bent's 
New Fort, some 40 miles downriver near a 
favorite Indian camping area, Big Timbers. 

Following the Mexican War, the Jicarillas, 
Comanches, Kiowas, and other tribes became 
increasingly threatened by traffic on the trail. 
While threats from Indians were common 
during the Mexican period (1821-48), the dan- 
ger intensified as traffic increased, especially 
during the Civil War. The beginning of stage- 
coach and mail service over the trail in 1850 
increased demands for military protection. 

Troubles along the trail resulted in expanding 
American pressure on the Indian population in 
the Southwest, leading to disruption of tribal 
life and the loss of traditional tribal lands. 
Negotiated treaties between Americans and 
Indians were violated or not fulfilled. One 
reason the Mountain route was developed for 
wagon traffic in the 1840s was to avoid 
troubles with Indians along the Cimarron route. 
Because of the difficulty in taking wagons over 
Raton Pass, however, the Mountain route was 
not heavily used until improvements were made 
during and after the Civil War. 

The Civil War began in 1861 and soon reached 
New Mexico. In early 1862 a Confederate force 
marched up the Rio Grande, intent on capturing 
Fort Union and ultimately the Colorado gold- 
fields. Meanwhile to the southwest, the Con- 
federates captured Tucson and established the 
Confederate Territory of Arizona. By acquiring 
this valuable territory, the South hoped to 
stretch Lincoln's naval blockade to two oceans 
and to finance the Confederate war effort. 



After the fall of Albuquerque and Santa Fe, 
only Fort Union blocked a Southern invasion of 
Colorado Territory, and a combined Union 
force of regular troops and volunteers from 
New Mexico and Colorado met the Confeder- 
ates at Glorieta Pass. Even though Union troops 
were initially losing ground, a separate unit of 
volunteers slipped behind the Confederate sol- 
diers and destroyed their supply train at 
Johnson's ranch. This forced the Confederates 
to retreat, and they were soon driven from New 
Mexico. The Union victory was decisive in pro- 
tecting the West and the main military supply 
route - the Santa Fe Trail - from the invading 
Confederates. 

During the Civil War Indian resistance grew 
along the trail, causing the army to establish 
additional forts in 1865: Fort Dodge, Camp 
Nichols, and Fort Aubry. This situation led to 
increased traffic on the Mountain route, and 
this route became more popular when Richens 
Lacy "Uncle Dick" Wootton opened a toll road 
over Raton Pass near the end of the Civil War. 
In 1878 he sold out to the Atchison, Topeka, 
and Santa Fe Railway, which won the right- 
of-way through the pass and built along the 
route of the Santa Fe Trail. 

Railroad construction started southwest from the 
Missouri River near the close of the Civil War. 
As the Union Pacific, Eastern Division (known 
after 1869 as the Kansas Pacific), worked with 
the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe to build the 
track westward, the trail diminished in length 
but not in importance. Trade items and military 
freight were carried as far as possible by rail, 
then transferred to wagons for the remainder of 
the trip by way of the major trail branches. 
Thus, within a few years a progression of 
towns - Junction City, Hays, and Sheridan in 
Kansas; Kit Carson, Granada, Las Animas, and 
Trinidad in Colorado; and finally Las Vegas, 
New Mexico - served as the eastern termini for 
wagon traffic. On February 9, 1880, the first 
steam engine passed near Santa Fe, ending 
nearly 60 years of overland use on the Santa 
Fe Trail. The era of freight wagons, oxen, and 
mules crossing vast distances over the rutted 
plains ceased, and most of the trail passed out 
of active use. 



10 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT 

AND USE PLAN 




In descending to the Rio Colorado, we encountered a party of 
custom-house agents, who, accompanied by a military escort, had come 
out to guard the caravan to the Capital. 

Josiah Gregg 



OVERVIEW 



The Comprehensive Management and Use Plan 
for the Santa Fe National Historic Trail seeks 
to balance resource preservation and visitor use 
along the trail. The goal of the National Park 
Service is to administer the Santa Fe Trail with 
the same care and effort afforded to units of 
the national park system, while recognizing the 
intents and authorities of the National Trails 
System Act, as amended. 

The National Park Service must rely on the 
cooperative efforts and support of state, local, 
and private interests, including landowners and 
other federal land-managing agencies, to ensure 
the protection of trail-related resources, to 
provide outdoor recreational opportunities, and 
to accomplish the objectives of the interpretive 
program. Within this partnership of federal, 
state, local, and private interests, the Park 



Service will work to ensure that the trail is 
managed as a single, integrated resource - a 
trail system. It will also work to stimulate and 
facilitate actions and programs by government 
and private interests, and it will offer technical 
advice and assistance to public as well as pri- 
vate owners of trail resources. 

The main elements of the plan are presented in 
this section. They include the identification of 
the historic route and significant resources, 
resource protection and management, visitor use 
(including proposed interpretive themes, devel- 
opment, and use guidelines), management and 
cooperation (including trail-marking techniques, 
certification procedures for trail sites and 
segments, and cooperative management agree- 
ments), and marketing opportunities to promote 
tourism. 




Fort Osage, Missouri 



13 



THE HISTORIC ROUTE AND SIGNIFICANT RESOURCES 



HISTORIC ROUTE 

The Santa Fc Trail, including its two main 
routes - the Mountain and the Cimarron - 
crossed over 1,200 miles of the central and 
southwestern United States. (The legislative 
description of an approximately 950-mile trail 
represents the estimated length of the trail via 
the longer Mountain route.) Each group of 
travelers followed slightly different routes, 
depending on the season and whether the year 
had been wet or dry. These variations resulted 
in routes that were several yards to several 
miles apart from one year to the next. In 
addition, adventurers willingly tried alternative 
routes and cutoffs to find water, avoid possibly 
hostile Indians, or shorten the trip. The routes 
became braided as mud holes, dust, excessive 
ruts, insufficient forage for draft animals, or 
difficult stream crossings forced travelers to 
move farther away from the main trail. As a 
result, various branches and trailheads on the 
plains developed and then declined over time. 

For American travelers the trail originated at 
various locations in Missouri, moving upriver 
from Franklin (now known as Old Franklin) to 
the Independence area by the late 1820s (a dis- 
tance of 112 miles); Westport, near present-day 
Kansas City, became the last staging area. 
During the early years of the trail, traders 
organized and made final equipment adjust- 
ments at what became Council Grove, Kansas. 
When the wagon trains reached the Arkansas 
River in central Kansas, the trail followed the 
river's north bank to the Middle Crossings near 
the present town of Cimarron, Kansas. 

Here, and at the Upper Crossing near present 
Lakin, Kansas, the trail eventually split, with 
the Cimarron route heading southwest across a 
60-milc stretch of waterless plains known as La 
Jornada - the journey - to the Cimarron River. 
The wagons then followed the river and prairie 
springs across what is now the Oklahoma 
Panhandle and entered New Mexico, just before 
coming to McNees Crossing. Using such 
landmarks as Rabbit Ears Peaks, Round Mound, 



and Point of Rocks, travelers found the Rock 
Crossing of the Canadian River, where they 
turned southwest to Wagon Mound and 
Watrous (then known as La Junta). 

The later Mountain route followed the north 
bank of the Arkansas River to Bent's Old Fort 
in Colorado. Here the wagon trains forded the 
river and headed toward Raton Pass and down 
to the small village of Cimarron, New Mexico, 
and on to Ocate and Fort Union. After the two 
routes rejoined at Watrous (La Junta), the trail 
passed through Las Vegas, San Miguel del 
Vado, and over Glorieta Pass to Santa Fe, with 
many travelers continuing on to Chihuahua, 
Mexico, and points south. The Mountain route 
was favored during the Civil War because there 
was less chance that the trains would be 
attacked by unfriendly Indians. Once railroads 
were constructed, wagons went from the end of 
the tracks over the Mountain route to Santa Fe 
and beyond. 

The Mexican travelers began their journey on 
the trail in Santa Fe, many times continuing 
from Chihuahua, Mexico, swinging around the 
Sangre de Cristo Mountains by way of Glorieta 
Pass, and entering the Great Plains. They halted 
at Watrous (La Junta) to organize and to wait 
until enough wagons were present to continue 
a safe journey over the plains. Their choice at 
Watrous was to take either the Mountain or the 
Cimarron route since they were camped at that 
intersection. The destination was the eastern 
terminus of the trail and then the lower middle 
Missouri and Mississippi valleys, where they 
sold their goods and continued cast as far as 
New York City to buy goods for their return 
to the Southwest. 

For travelers who used the Cimarron route, the 
approximate distance from Old Franklin was 
865 miles (753 miles from Independence), with 
the Cimarron route itself measuring 294 miles 
from the Middle Crossings of the Arkansas 
River to Watrous (La Junta). For travelers on 
the Mountain route, the total distance from Old 
Franklin was 909 miles (797 miles from 



14 



The Historic Route and Significant Resources 



Independence); the Mountain route itself, from 
the Upper Crossing near Lakin, Kansas, to 
Watrous, measures 338 miles. 

Miles of trail in each of the five states through 
which the main corridor passes are shown in 
table 1 (for the mileage from Independence, 
subtract 112 miles): 



Table 1: Mileage of the Santa Fe 


National Historic Trail by 


State 






Shared 




Mileage 


Mileage* 


Missouri 






(from Old Franklin) 


130 




Kansas* 






Cimarron route 


446 , 


358 


Mountain route 


401 j 


Oklahoma 






Cimarron route 


46 




Colorado 






Cimarron route 


14 




Mountain route 


181 




New Mexico* 






Cimarron route 


228 . 


83 


Mountain route 


197 ' 


Total Distance 






Cimarron route 


865 




Mountain route 


909 





*In Kansas and New Mexico both routes over- 
lap the same corridor. The shared mileage is 
measured to the junction of the two routes. 



So that significant trail sites and segments will 
be recognized as components of the Santa Fe 
National Historic Trail, suitable markers will be 
placed along the designated historic trail route. 
The Mountain and Cimarron routes are consid- 
ered of equal importance in terms of official 
designation and marking. 

The general trail route is shown on the Historic 
Route map and in much greater detail on maps 
in the separate Map Supplement volume. The 
maps in the Map Supplement constitute the 
official route map required by section 7(a)(2) of 
the National Trails System Act, and its descrip- 
tion will be published in the Federal Register. 



The supplement includes route maps for the 
designated main trail plus the major branches. 
A total of about 76 miles of the route could 
not be precisely located (these segments are 
denoted in the Map Supplement by a dashed 
line). If subsequent research shows that the 
primary route should be changed, then an offi- 
cial notice of correction will be published in 
the Federal Register. 



MAJOR HISTORIC BRANCHES 

Major branches that saw significant use for 
commercial or military freight have been iden- 
tified. These include the Aubry cutoff (122 
miles), which passed through Kansas, Colorado, 
and Oklahoma, and the military roads from 
Granada, Colorado, to Fort Union, New Mexico 
(237 miles), from Fort Hays to Fort Dodge, 
Kansas (90 miles), and the Fort Leavenworth 
branches in Kansas (188 miles). The total for 
these branches is 637 miles. 

The National Park Service will recognize and 
discuss these branches, as well as other inter- 
related trails, in its interpretive programs along 
the main trail. Also, states or other nonfederal 
entities will be encouraged to develop compre- 
hensive programs to mark the major branches, 
and possibly to interpret, protect, and provide 
recreational opportunities along them. The Park 
Service will permit such entities to post Santa 
Fe National Historic Trail markers on these 
routes if the branch names are also posted with 
the markers. Key sites along the branches have 
been identified as high-potential historic sites 
(see appendix C). The Park Service will 
coordinate with the major administrators of 
these branch trails in matters relating to 
interpretation and public information, and some 
technical planning assistance may be provided. 

A study will be conducted to address the na- 
tional historic trail designation criteria listed in 
section 5(b) of the National Trails System Act, 
thus helping to provide for the addition of 
qualifying trails to the Santa Fe National 
Historic Trail. The study will determine the 
historical importance of each route, distinguish 
between major and minor routes, identify other 



15 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT AND USE PLAN 



significant branches, and define terms such as 
route, branch, spur, and cutoff as they apply to 
the Santa Fe National Historic Trail. Appropri- 
ate ways for these resources to be managed 
will also be addressed. 



HISTORIC SITES AND 
ROUTE SEGMENTS 

High-potential sites and segments along the 
Santa Fe Trail are to be identified in accor- 
dance with section 5(e) of the National Trails 
System Act. Each site or segment must have 
the potential, as determined through the official 
certification process (NTSA, sec. 3[a][3]), to 
interpret the trail's historical significance and to 
provide high-quality recreational activities. Each 
should also have greater than average scenic 
values, and each should also give visitors the 
chance to vicariously share the experience of 
long-ago trail users. The criteria for high- 
potential sites and segments, therefore, include 
historical significance, the presence of visible 
historic remains, scenic quality, and relative 
freedom from intrusion. 

Certification is the administrative process by 
which the National Park Service evaluates sites 
and segments managed by nonfederal coopera- 
tors and designates such areas as official 
components of the national historic trail. To 
retain certification, managers must show that 
the interpretation, preservation, and recreation 
objectives of the National Trails System Act 
and the plan are being met (see "Site/Segment 
Certification Procedures," page 44). 

For the purposes of this planning effort, a trail 
reconnaissance was cond'icted in spring 1988 
from Old Franklin, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New 
Mexico. Both the Cimarron and the Mountain 
routes were followed, plus major branches. This 
afforded an opportunity for the mapping team 
to see firsthand the sites, to determine their 
status and condition, and to obtain information 
for the mapping and site inventory. 

High-potential sites and route segments were 
selected in several steps. The National Park 
Service first requested four consultant historians 



to identify the historic sites they believed to be 
the most significant, and the route segments 
that offered the most potential for interpretive 
or recreational enjoyment. To qualify, a site had 
to be historically significant in terms of com- 
merce or other associated activities occurring 
along the Santa Fe Trail. The historians drew 
on their own personal knowledge of the Santa 
Fe Trail by studying it on the ground and from 
reading numerous references. The types of sites 
selected include geographic landmarks, water 
crossings, campsites, graves, trail junctions, 
stage stations, and other structures. 

In selecting route segments, the criteria used 
were a high degree of integrity and well- 
defined trail ruts extending 0.5 mile to over 50 
miles. These segments also had to offer out- 
standing historic or scenic values, and consid- 
eration was given to the integrity of the 
historical scene and its ability to convey 
authenticity and a historical ambiance. 

After certification, the resulting high-potential 
sites and route segments will be designated as 
official components of the Santa Fe National 
Historic Trail. A total of 194 historic sites and 
30 route segments (totaling 183.6 mi) were 
identified (see table 2); additional sites and 
segments may be included in the future. Several 
high-potential sites along major trail branches 
have been included because of their possible 
interpretive value. The historic sites are briefly 
described in appendix C, and the route seg- 
ments are listed in table C-l. 



Table 2: Federally Protected Components 

and potentially qlialdtied components of 

the Santa Fe National Historic Trail 





Sites 


Segments 


Missouri 


4X 





Kansas 


Ih 


7 


Oklahoma 


7 


4 


Colorado 


14 


1 


New Mexico 


J9 


_L8 


Total 


194 


30 



16 



1 Franklin Site 

2 Boone's Lick 

3 Arrow Rock 

4 Arrow Rock Landir 

5 Santa Fe Spring 

6 Huston Tavern 

7 Neff Tavern Site 

8 Harvey SpnngWei 

9 Grand Pass 

10 Tabo Creek Cross 

1 1 Lexington 

12 Fort Osage 

13 Little Blue River C 

14 Blue Mills 

15 Lower Independen 

16 Upper Independen 

17 Jackson County C 

18 Jackson County Li 

19 Kritser House 

20 Jackson County J 

21 Lewis-Webb Hous 

22 Fernl-Henley Hous 

23 Noland House 

24 205 North Main 
25. 207-209 North Ma 




C O L O R A p n 



°S<rr — 



Note: 



This listing will be updated periodically. For 
alignment details see official trail route maps 
in the Map Supplement. 



MAJOR BRANCHES 




DESIGNATED HISTORIC ROUTE 



10 
_i 



20 

i_ 



30 

_i 



4 



50 MILES 
i 



1> 

NORTH 



HISTORIC ROUTE 

SANTA FE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



624 
DSC 



20,001 B 
MAR 90 



Franklin Sile 




26 


206-308 North Mam 






27 


Woodlawn Cemetery 






28 


Jabez Smilh Overseers House 


Arrow Rock Landing 




29 




Sanla Fe Spring 




30 


Trail Park Ruts 


Huston Tavern 




31 


Trail Puis 


Ne« Tavern Site 




32 


Lewi5-Bmgham Wagganc-r House 


Harvey Spring Weinr 


ch Ruls 


33 


Public Spring Sue 






34 


Overfell-Johnston Mouse 


Tat>o Creek Crossrnc 




35 


Gllpintown 








William McCoy House 


Fort Osage 




37 


Big Blue River Crossing 




sing 


38 


Archibald Rice Farmhouse 


Blue Mills 




39 


Red Bridge Crossing 


' pendente 


[Blue Mills) Landm 
(Wayne City) Land 


ng 4i 


Minor Park Ruls 


Jackson County CouMhouse 


42 


Ewmg-Boone Store 


inly Log Courthouse 




J,m Bridgets Store 








Wiiham Bent House 


1 . ■ 




45 


Westport Landing 


Lewis-Webb House 




46 


New Sama Fe 


Form Henley House 












48 


Alexander Majors House 


N ■ Wan 




49 




307-209 North Main 




SO 


Grmier House and Ferry 



Mahart.e Fam 

n Campground 
i-on Leavenworth 



imt Stage Station 
McGeeH.vns Stage Station 
Swiizier Creek Crossing 
Dragoon Creek Crossing 

1 1 Station 

■ Grave 
Soiflie' CreeV Crossing 



Seth Hays House 




100 Ash Creek Cros 






101 Pawnee Fort. C 


Hermit s Cave 




102 Fort lamed Nat 


Last Chance Store 




103 Coon Creek Crc 






104 Black Pool 




d Stage Slation E 


,e 105 Lower Crossing 






106 Fort Dodge 


Cottonwood C ■ 


9 


10? Walnut Creek C 


Durham Ruts 




108 Pawnee Fork (C 




■ I g and Camzozo Creek 


145 


Herni.li Peal 


65 


Fort Union National Monument 


65 New Fort Lyon 


Crossing 


146 




GG 


Ocate Crossing 


86 Old Fort Lyon 


■ 






67 




87 Bents New Fort 


128 Turkey Creek Camp 


148 


Puertocita Pedregosa 


66 


Cimarron Plaza and Well 


88 Old Granada Site 


129 Raobil Ears Creek Camp 




Tecolote 


69 


St James Motel 


89 Fort Aubry and Aubry Crossing 


130 Mourn Dora 


150 


Starvalion Peak (Bernal Hill) 






90 Indian Mound 


131 Round Mound 


151 


San Miguel del Vado 




Swmk s Gambling Hall 


91 Chouteaus Island 


li 




Gtonela Mesa 


7? 


Clifton House 


92 Upper Crossing 


lla» County NM 


153 


San Jose del Vado 


73 


Willow Springs 


93 Kearny County Historical Society (Bentrup) Ruts 


ng ol the Canadian River 


154 


Kozlowskis Stage Station 




Raton Pass 


94 Point ol Rocks Pawnee Fort Finney Counly KS 


135 Wagon Mound 


155 




75 


Woolton Ranch 




" jra Spring 


156 


Pecos National Monument 


76 


Cruz Torres Grave 




137 Pilot Knobs 


157 


Apache Canyon 




Fishers Peak [Raton Mounlainl 




138 Watrous Store 




Glonela Pass 




Hough-Baca House 




139 Barclay s Fort Sue 




Pigeons Ranch and Gtonela Battlefield 


79 


Spanish Peaks 




140 Sapeiio Stage Stahon 


160 


Johnsons Ranch Site 


6T; 


Hoie-m-iheRock S.le 




mi Sapeilo River Crossing 


161 


Santa Fe Plaza 


81 


Iron Spring 




14? Fod Union Corral 




Palace ol the Governors 


8: 






143 Mora 


163 


Fort Matey 


6 3 


Bent s Old Fort National Historic Sue 




144 La Cueva 


164 


Tiptonvflle 


84 


Boggsville 






10 20 30 40 50 MILES 



HISTORIC ROUTE 

SANTA FE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 

I'NIltD STATES DEPARTMENT OF Tilt INTfcRI"" 
NATIONAL PAHK MRU 



The Historic Route and Significant Resources 



Among the historic sites and route segments 
selected are trail-associated resources that either 
are in present national park system units, that 
are designated as national historic landmarks, or 
that are listed on the National Register of His- 
toric Places. Those resources that are within 
national park system units are fully protected 
and interpreted according to NPS management 
policies and guidelines. In accordance with the 
National Trails System Act, section 3(a)(3), 
resources on federal lands are designated as 
federal protection components. 

National historic landmarks are, by definition, 
of national significance, and they must be 
officially designated by the secretary of interior; 
by such designation they are eligible for NPS 
technical assistance programs. Historic land- 
marks are also subject to yearly reviews of 
threats to their integrity. Trail resources listed 
on the National Register of Historic Places are 
designated as being of local, state, or national 
significance. They are afforded recognition and 
some protection when directly or indirectly 
impacted by federal projects, through compli- 
ance with provisions of the National Historic 
Preservation Act, as amended. 

The historic sites and route segments listed in 
this plan do not represent a comprehensive list- 
ing of all trail-related resources. This plan 
proposes a historic resource study to inventory 
and develop a comprehensive listing and to 
evaluate significant resources, as required by 
the NPS Cultural Resources Management 
Guideline (NPS-28). That study will identify 
additional historic sites and cross-country 
segments eligible for national historic landmark 
status or for listing on the national register. 
That study will also identify archeological and 
ethnographic sites, along with summarizing the 
number of archeological or historic sites listed 
on the national register or determined eligible 
or potentially eligible for listing. Certified sites 
and segments will be recognized as official 
components of the Santa Fe National Historic 
Trail, and appropriate means of protection and 
opportunities for public appreciation will be 
provided. 



As stated above, this plan defines a significant 
trail segment as a segment with ruts extending 
for 0.5 mile or farther. This figure was selected 
as the minimum length necessary for visitors to 
retrace the historic route and achieve a quality 
experience. Those route segments less than 0.5 
mile in length are recognized as significant sites 
and have been located on the official trail maps 
found in the Map Supplement for this plan. 
(Well-known ruts are shown on the Historic 
Route map in this document.) 

Trail segments that are federally owned are 
automatically protected as significant resources, 
with the various federal agencies following their 
own management policies for resource protec- 
tion. The segments with ruts on private lands 
can be recognized through the certification 
process described later in this plan (see page 
44). Those smaller sites may be significant 
interpretive sites. 

The designated trail route may not qualify for 
preservation where there is no existing trail 
evidence, but there may still be some inter- 
pretive value. The trail route may be used for 
interpretation or recreational activities (for 
example, hiking) or to connect visible trail 
resources. These segments may also be certified 
as components of the Santa Fe National 
Historic Trail. 



NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM AREAS 

Four sites of exceptional significance to the 
Santa Fe Trail are administered by the National 
Park Service. The interpretive programs explain 
their respective roles in trail history. 

Fort Larned National Historic Site, Kansas. 

Fort Larned protected tra f fic along the Santa Fe 
Trail from 1859 to 1878, it was a key military 
post in the Indian War of 1868-69, and it 
served as an Indian agency during the 1860s. 
It is one of the best preserved frontier military 
posts in the American West, as well as on the 
Santa Fe Trail. Nine of the ten original stone 
buildings remain today, with the tenth recon- 
structed in 1988. A 44-acre tract near the fort 
preserves ruts of the Santa Fe Trail. 



19 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT AND USE PLAN 



Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site, 
Colorado. Bent's Old Fort was constructed in 
1833-34 by Charles and William Bent and 
Ceran St. Vrain. It quickly became a center of 
trade on the plains with the Indians and 
travelers. The firm, St. Vrain and Company, 
also operated mercantile establishments in Taos 
and Santa Fe, which provided trade goods for 
the fort. Their influence on the plains with the 
Indian tribes was unsurpassed. Bent's Old Fort 
is reconstructed and furnished as it might have 
been in 1846. 

Fort Union National Monument, New 
Mexico. Fort Union was established along the 
Santa Fe Trail in 1851. Soldiers, including 
volunteers from Colorado and New Mexico, led 
many campaigns against the southern Plains 
Indians, defeated Confederate forces at the 
Battle of Glorieta Pass, and protected travelers 
on the trail. After 1862 the fort became the 
principal quartermaster depot in the Southwest, 
receiving supplies over the trail for distribution 
to other posts. Today, only ruins remain, and 
no buildings have been reconstructed. 

Pecos National Monument, New Mexico. 
Pecos is significant as the site of one of the 
largest prehistoric pueblos and a 17th and 18th 
century colonial mission. The pueblo served as 
a trade center for the Pueblos and the nomadic 
Plains Indians. The pueblo and mission declined 
by the end of the 1700s, and by 1821 only a 
few families inhabited the area. In 1838 the last 
17 survivors moved to the Jemez Pueblo, where 
their descendants remain today. 

The pueblo and mission ruins served as a land- 
mark, campsite, and curiosity for Santa Fe Trail 
travelers. The visitor center provides some in- 
terpretation of Pecos and the trail. Remnants of 
trail ruts occur within the monument, but they 
are difficult to reach and not open to visitation. 
If adjacent lands and sites become available for 
interpretation, visitor use may be expanded. 



NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM AREAS 

Various portions of the Santa Fe Trail route are 
also administered by the U.S. Forest Service. 



Cimarron National Grassland, Kansas, and 
Kiowa National Grassland, New Mexico. 

About 23 miles of the Cimarron route are 
preserved in Cimarron National Grassland, plus 
two historic sites, Middle Spring and Point of 
Rocks. Another small portion is preserved in 
Kiowa National Grassland near Clayton, New 
Mexico. 

Comanche National Grassland, Colorado. 

Approximately 10 miles of the Mountain route 
from Bent's Old Fort to Trinidad are preserved 
in Comanche National Grassland, about 20 
miles south of La Junta, Colorado. This 
publicly owned segment contains areas where 
ruts are visible. 

The Aubry cutoff and Granada-Fort Union 
military road were important Santa Fe Trail 
branches. The Aubry cutoff was pioneered by 
Francis X. Aubry in 1850 as an alternative to 
the Cimarron route; it had more dependable 
water sources than did La Jornada on the 
Cimarron route. About a 4-mile segment is 
preserved in Comanche National Grassland. 

The Granada-Fort Union military road was 
used in the 1870s to ferry freight from the 
railhead at Granada, Colorado, to Fort Union, 
New Mexico. A 6-mile segment is preserved in 
Comanche National Grassland. 

Santa Fe National Forest, New Mexico. A 3- 

mile portion of the Mountain route between 
Glorieta Pass and Santa Fe is preserved in the 
Santa Fe National Forest, New Mexico. 



MARKING THE TRAIL 

Various attempts over the years have helped 
commemorate the Santa Fe Trail. State chapters 
of the Daughters of the American Revolution 
placed granite markers intermittently along the 
trail, as well as three "Madonna of the Trail" 
statues in the early 1900s to help mark historic 
trails. From 1928 to 1948 the states and early 
highway associations installed markers. 

Starting in 1948, the Kansas City chapter of the 
American Pioneer Trail Association posted oval- 



20 



The Historic Route and Significant Resources 



shaped metal signs - with a distinctive symbol 
of a wagon, mules, and a driver - on school- 
houses along the route of 'he Santa Fe Trail. 
Many of these signs have been vandalized or 
removed, although a few can still be found in 
scattered locations along the trail. 

In the 1960s the Santa re Trail Highway 
Association put up rectangular green-and-white 
signs with a wagon on them, some of which 
may still be seen. In addition to these efforts, 
individuals all along the trail route have 
initiated projects - for example, locating and 
cleaning up old markers and placing new ones 
- to call attention to the trail. 

The U.S. Forest Service also marked the 
portion of trail within the Cimarron National 
Grassland in Morton County, Kansas. Signs 
posted at regular intervals featured the back of 
a wagon and the legend "Cimarron National 
Grassland." This sign system was maintained 
until recently, and the Forest Service is 
planning to replace these signs with the new 
NPS national historic trail signs. 

To help commemorate the trail's national sig- 
nificance, official markers will be placed along 
the historic route to permanently establish the 
location of the trail i:i places where no ruts or 
other traces exist, as well as along the visible 
parts of the route. Markers will also help indi- 



viduals who want to follow the trail by 
showing them the actual route. Furthermore, 
markers will help protect the trail remnants 
from inadvertent destruction or development. 

The recommended marker, with colors as 
shown on the title page, is triangular with a 
symbol of an oxen-drawn wagon in the center 
to symbolize the commercial significance of the 
trail. The design concept was developed by a 
graphic designer in consultation with the Santa 
Fe Trail Association and the National Park 
Service. The marker conforms to the shape 
established for components of the national trails 
system. 

Procedures for marking the trail, as well as an 
auto tour route, and the types of signs that will 
be available, are discussed in the "Management 
and Cooperation" section (see page 43). The 
marker is a trademark of the National Park Ser- 
vice. Its use is restricted to the National Park 
Service and others to whom the Park Service 
grants permission for specific applications that 
help further the purposes of the trail. The 
marker symbol must be approved by the 
Federal Highway Administration before it can 
be used on federal or interstate highways. Sign 
specifications will be provided by the Park 
Service. In areas of cattle ranching, Carsonite 
or similar flexible posts will be provided to 
reduce post and marker damage. 




Ife&Kk*' 



'•■jHHSM*' ■"»- 




Santa Fe Trail Ruts, Grand Pass Cemetery, Missouri 






21 



RESOURCE PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT 



The primary management objective for the 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail is to promote 
the protection of significant trail-related cultural 
and natural resources along the trail route to 
maintain and perpetuate their inherent integrity. 
Many private landowners along the Santa Fe 
Trail have done a very good job conserving 
trail resources. In this section of the plan, 
protection measures that may be used to protect 
a national historic trail are described. 



RESOURCE PROTECTION 

The resource protection concept is to protect 
visible and subsurface rut segments and sites in 
an unimpaired condition. Stabilization of visible 
ruts to control erosion, as well as other 
appropriate vegetation management techniques, 
will be employed to conserve ruts. Where 
natural forces such as soil deposition or erosion 
cannot be effectively managed to prevent the 
loss or filling of ruts, the original rut location 
will be recorded and marked. Subsurface ruts 
will be documented when discovered or 
revealed through testing, but they will not 
usually be excavated. Where no discernible trail 
ruts exist at the surface level, and where 
subsurface trail remnants will not be affected, 
visitor use can occur directly on the original 
trail alignments, if known. 

The physical use of existing trail remnants for 
recreation or other purposes will normally be 
discouraged. However, where the resources are 
durable, limited nonmotorized visitor use of 
appropriate trail ruts will he permitted. Where 
the expected visitor use (e.g., hiking) on a 
particular segment may be sufficient to cause 
erosion, denudation of vegetation, or actual 
damage to ruts, contemporary parallel trails may 
be developed so as to maintain existing ruts in 
their historical context and to help control 
visitor use. New recreation trails will be aligned 
and designed to minimize visual or physical 
encroachment on historic ruts. 



In general, grazing is a compatible use in areas 
where trail segments are visible. Where oil, gas, 
or other mining activities occur, such uses may 
be compatible with trail preservation efforts, 
provided mitigating measures are employed 
(e.g., pipeline tunneling under surface ruts and 
the use of planks to provide vehicle access 
across ruts). 

The designated historic route will be maintained 
to preserve scenic values and qualities, thereby 
ensuring high-quality recreational or interpretive 
experiences. In national park system units the 
quality of the historical scene and visitor 
experience will be protected to the highest 
degree possible because of the overall 
combination of resource values, interpretive 
values, and on-site resource management. Other 
federal land-managing agencies will be 
encouraged to protect, interpret, and provide 
recreational uses along federal protection 
components. 

All cultural and natural resources along the trail 
route will be inventoried by the National Park 
Service and analyzed to determine appropriate 
preservation techniques and resource potential to 
accommodate visitor use or interpretation. 
Priorities will be established to preserve sites 
and segments according to their significance, 
their ability to accommodate visitor use, and 
their interpretive value. 

The National Park Service will encourage local, 
state, and federal agencies, and others 
(including landowners) to enter into cooperative 
agreements to protect significant sites. If this 
means of protection is inadequate, then local, 
state, or federal agencies and others, including 
conservation organizations, will be encouraged 
to protect the sites by using fee or less-than- 
fee techniques. If landowners desire, the Park 
Service may consider acquiring interests in 
property through easement or fee, using 
donation, exchange, or purchase, depending on 
the significance and other values of the site. 
The Park Service will try to find local 
managers for these acquired sites and segments 



22 



Resource Protection and Management 



to help protect the resources and to provide for 
appropriate visitor use. 

Other programs undertaken by the National 
Park Service will include expanding trail-related 
preservation efforts at existing national park 
system units along the trail; establishing a 
technical assistance program (planning and 
design only) to stabilize and, where appropriate, 
restore significant resources for protection and 
interpretive purposes (reconstruction will not be 
supported); and encouraging a research program 
in cooperation with local, state, and federal 
agencies, colleges and universities, and private 
interests. 

Under the technical assistance program, private 
landowners may request information and help 
with their preservation efforts. Information will 
be provided to landowners and managers 
regarding sound stewardship practices and new 
resource protection concepts. The National Park 
Service will work with the Soil Conservation 
Service to determine the most effective ways to 
stabilize trail ruts and reduce erosion (see 
cooperative agreement between the National 
Park Service and the Soil Conservation Service 
in appendix D). Baseline aerial photographs of 
the trail will be taken for resource protection 
and monitoring purposes. 

Through its national historic landmark program, 
the National Park Service will provide technical 
assistance by assessing structural conditions, by 
documenting historic structures through the 
Historic American Buildings Survey and the 
Historic American Engineering Record, and by 
annually reporting to Congress about endan- 
gered landmarks along the trail. Grants through 
the NPS Historic Preservation Fund will be 
used to the fullest extent possible, with the 
cooperation of the states, to help protect 
qualifying historic sites along the trail. Where 
applicable, the Park Service will encourage the 
preservation of historic properties by private 
and commercial entities through lax incentives. 

To provide funding for the preservation of 
historic resources, the National Park Service 
will give highest priority toward directing 
cooperative preservation efforts for certified 



Santa Fe National Historic Trail sites and 
segments. Funds will be used for two purposes: 
(1) to stabilize or otherwise conduct physical 
activities to conserve resources, or (2) to 
acquire interests in properties to ensure long- 
term protective management. Those historic re- 
sources not included in this listing will have to 
be evaluated according to the criteria of signif- 
icance found in the nomination form for the 
National Register of Historic Places. If the 
resources meet the criteria and are critically 
important to the Santa Fe National Historic 
Trail, then the Park Service will encourage 
protection efforts and may also provide the 
owners or managers with information about ob- 
taining funding for specific preservation work. 

The National Park Service may consider pro- 
viding direct financial assistance if all other 
private, local, and state funding sources are 
exhausted. Projects that combine funding from 
several sources will be encouraged because of 
the intent of the National Trails System Act to 
limit federal financial assistance while providing 
incentives for cooperative partnerships. 

Remaining sites or segments that do not possess 
the qualities necessary for national register 
listing may still be eligible for trail certification 
and commemorative marking, even if they are 
not eligible for protection measures. 

Because the Santa Fe Trail follows a long, 
narrow route across the country and crosses 
numerous political jurisdictions with both rural 
and urban characteristics, techniques that could 
be used to protect trail-related resources could 
vary significantly from area to area and from 
state to state. Among the specific resource pro- 
tection issues for the Santa Fe Trail are the 
following: 

• the provision of public access to historic 
sites and segments 

• the protection of ruts and sites from 
changes that will diminish the historic 
integrity of the trail 

• the protection of scenic resources along the 
route of the trail from development and 



23 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT AND USE PLAN 



uses that will detract from the experiences 
of visitors 

Tools available to protect resources along the 
Santa Fe Trail are briefly described below. 
Several techniques can be effective in preserv- 
ing trail resources, including cooperative 
agreements, easements, regulations, and fee- 
simple purchase (which will only be used as a 
last resort to protect significant resources). 
Condemnation by the federal government will 
not be considered as an option because the 
enabling legislation for the Santa Fe National 
Historic Trail stipulates that a landowner must 
consent to any transfer of property rights. 



Cooperative Agreement 

The cooperative agreement will be the most 
basic and essential tool necessary to help 
implement the objectives for the Santa Fe Trail, 
it will help foster landowner trust and support 
for trail programs, protect their basic property 
rights, provide them with pride and satisfaction 
in sharing their resources for public benefit, 
and help the public to recognize and appreciate 
their contribution to the management of the 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail. 

A cooperative agreement is a clearly defined 
written arrangement between two or more 
parties that allows some specific action to be 
taken (for example, to allow access for resource 
management, interpretation, or recreation; to 
permit erosion control; to allow the posting of 
markers or signs; or to allow others to manage 
activities or developments and to protect 
landowner interests). Cooperative agreements 
allow lands to be kept on local tax rolls, and 
the land title and rights are retained by the 
owner. A cooperative agreement is not binding 
and can be terminated by either party at any 
time with proper notification. 

Used in concert with state recreational liability 
statutes and/or the provisions of the Volunteers 
in the Parks Act of 1969, cooperating land- 
owners will be protected from liability claims 
arising from trail-related uses of their lands 
(see appendix B). Property damage arising from 



such use cannot be compensated by the 
National Park Service. 

Cooperative agreements, depending on land- 
owner desires, may be superseded with more 
permanent interests, such as easements or fee 
acquisition of property. The acquisition of 
permanent interests will be considered by the 
National Park Service after evaluating the 
benefits for the trail as well as the objective of 
encouraging and maintaining local, voluntary 
support for trail management. 



Easement 

An easement conveys a specific right in a 
property (for example, the right to limit access, 
or to construct or not construct buildings) from 
one party to another, but the owner retains 
underlying title to the property (as opposed to 
fee-simple purchase, when the owner transfers 
all property rights). An easement can either be 
purchased or donated. Generally, easements 
along the Santa Fe Trail can be used to ensure 
that private landowners do not take actions that 
will result in damage to or destruction of a 
site's cultural or natural assets. An easement 
can also be used to guarantee public and 
agency access to the sites, as well as to allow 
exploration of historic and archeological re- 
sources under NPS or other agency supervision. 



Fee-Simple Ownership 

When all interests in a given tract of land are 
acquired, the property is said to be owned in 
fee simple. Although this type of ownership is 
the most expensive, it does provide the greatest 
guarantee that resources will be continuously 
preserved and that there will be opportunities 
for visitor use. 

Fee-simple purchase will be limited to those 
sites or segments of the Santa Fe Trail that are 
determined to be especially important for public 
appreciation, interpretation, or quality outdoor 
recreation, that must be carefully managed to 
preserve resource integrity, and that are 



24 



Resource Protection and Management 



expected to receive a high volume of public 
use. Fee-simple purchase, as with easements, 
will be especially important for historically 
significant sites or segments where the land- 
owner does not want to maintain a cooperative 
agreement and resources are deteriorating. Other 
state and local agencies will be encouraged to 
acquire an appropriate interest. Any acquisition 
by the National Park Service will have to be 
based on the willing consent of the landowner. 
NPS acquisition will not necessarily mean that 
the Park Service directly manages the property. 
Where beneficial to the cooperative spirit of the 
National Trails System Act, the Park Service 
will seek local sponsors, including government 
agencies or private groups, to manage the 
resources. 

The major socioeconomic impact of fee-simple 
purchase by a federal, state, or local govern- 
mental agency will be the removal of lands 
from local tax rolls. This effect will be partially 
mitigated through payments in lieu of taxes if 
the land is purchased by a federal agency. The 
displacement of landowners is not anticipated to 
be an issue for the Santa Fe National Historic 
Trail because much of the adjacent land is used 
for agricultural rather than residential purposes. 

In addition to acquisition from a willing seller 
by purchase, the National Park Service will 
have two other methods to acquire interests in 
land from consenting owners: a donation or 
bargain sale of land, or an exchange. 

Donation I Bargain Sale - With a dona- 
tion or bargain sale, a full or partial inter- 
est (that is, an easement) in a tract of land 
is transferred at less than full-market value. 
Such a transfer can result in beneficial 
publicity for a project, as well as some tax 
benefits for the donor or seller (owners 
should consult a qualified tax advisor for 
details). Because donations cost the recip- 
ient little or nothing, this technique is an 
economical means to acquire appropriate 
interests in trail resources. 

Exchange - A mutually beneficial land 
exchange between two or more parties can 
be used to protect trail resources. The 



National Park Service has the authority to 
acquire not only a trail corridor, but the 
rest of the tract outside the area of pro- 
posed acquisition. The interests in the 
corridor, as well as the rest of the tract, 
can be acquired by exchanging suitable 
and available property that the Park 
Service administers within the same state. 
Excess lands acquired by the Park Service 
can be banked for future exchange pur- 
poses or disposed of through sale. Other 
federal agencies (such as the U.S. Forest 
Service) can also employ such a technique 
for lands they administer. 



Regulatory Processes 

Federal, state, and local governments may have 
a variety of legal or statutory provisions that 
can be used to regulate or guide development. 
These processes can include zoning regulations 
and subdivision ordinances in cities, utility 
licensing, surface and subsurface mineral 
extraction permits in rural areas, cultural 
resource preservation laws and ordinances, and 
natural resource protection laws. All these 
processes can be used as tools to protect trail 
resources. 

In the case of mineral activity, the states can 
help protect trail resources through the 
regulation of subsurface activities or other 
compliance procedures. Fee-simple ownership 
does not necessarily include subsurface interests 
(such as mineral rights), which can be retained 
by the previous owner. How the nonownership 
of these interests may affect the character of 
trail resources will be carefully considered. 

Directional drilling and other techniques can be 
used to access subsurface resources from 
outside the trail boundaries, but some resources 
could still be affected by extraction activities. 
Possible impacts of mining or drilling opera- 
tions include an intrusion on scenic and historic 
vistas, access road or pipeline construction 
across trail segments, an increase in ambient 
noise levels, and the degradation of air quality. 
Vibrations from extractive processes might also 
affect the physical integrity of historic 



25 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGExMENT AND USE PLAN 



structures. Mitigation measures like placing 
planks across trail ruts where vehicles must 
cross or tunneling under the ruts for pipelines 
will be encouraged. 



and subsequent specialization, is necessary. 
An overall synthesis of commerce and an 
assessment of its importance not only to 
regional economics, but also to national 
and international economics, is needed. 



RESEARCH 

A primary resource management objective for 
the Santa Fe National Historic Trail is to 
encourage further research to improve the 
knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of 
trail remnants and related resources, as well as 
the overall commemoration of its national 
significance. A comprehensive data base needs 
to be developed. One important means to 
accomplish this is the completion by the 
National Park Service of a historic resource 
study, including nominations for those sites that 
qualify for the National Register of Historic 
Places. The Park Service will develop an 
agreement with an institution or a nonprofit 
organization to serve as a research clearing- 
house and coordinator, as well as to help 
stimulate research toward national historic trail 
interpretive and preservation needs. The Park 
Service will also consider providing limited 
funds on a cost-sharing basis or helping to 
solicit funds from outside sources. Areas 
potentially requiring additional research include 
the following: 

Spanish/Mexican role - A concerted effort 
must be made to collect basic data about 
the role of Spain and Mexico in trade with 
the United States. A detailed description of 
this pattern of international trade, along 
with a consideration of its economic, polit- 
ical, and social aspects, should be a high 
priority. Because of the importance of such 
a study, it will be undertaken by the 
National Park Service. 

Commerce - The reason for the develop- 
ment of the Santa Fe Trail was commerce. 
Information needs to be gathered about 
trade items, prices, quantity of commerce, 
merchandising, marketing, Mexican and 
Anglo freighters and freighting firms, and 
commission merchants. An examination of 
the evolution from small to large merchant, 



Social/Cultural Aspects - Several important 
needs can be identified. The role of 
women associated with the trail must be 
examined, along with the ethnic, racial, 
religious, and cultural backgrounds of 
those involved in trail activity. Examples 
of the cross-pollination and exchange of 
cultures along the trail also need to be 
documented. Art, architecture, literature, 
clothing, customs, mores, attitudes, patterns 
of landownership, water rights, wealth, and 
politics were all affected. A computerized 
data base can be developed that will in- 
clude the location of items and collections 
illustrating the trail's cultural impact. 
Another computerized data base can be 
established to profile merchants, traders, 
teamsters, and caravans by year. Addition- 
ally, biographical literature about signifi- 
cant figures involved with the trail - both 
men and women - needs to be expanded. 

American Indians - Studies of the impact 
the trail had on native people are required. 
These studies would encompass lifeways, 
cultural exchanges, trade, migration pat- 
terns, and other appropriate topics. Early 
trails that Indians used, and the ways that 
these trails affected the development of the 
Santa Fe Trail, should also be researched. 

Other influences - The impact the trail had 
on stock raising, wagon manufacturing, 
blacksmithing, postal contracts, saddlery, 
hostelry, saloons, and brothels should be 
assessed. The trail influenced steamboat 
traffic and banking on both regional and 
national levels, and these effects should be 
examined. The trail's role in the depiction 
of natural resources and other ecological 
changes caused by hunters and trappers 
should also be examined. 

U.S. Army - A much needed area of 
research is the role of the military on the 



20 



Resource Protection and Management 



Santa Fe Trail and its effects on the 
Southwest. 

Railroads - The railroads had a significant 
impact on the trail, and this effect warrants 
further study. As the eastern terminus of 
the trail moved west with the development 
of railheads, branches of the trail were 
spawned. An examination of this process 
and of associated feeder freight lines is 
warranted. A description of how early 
tourism along the trail was encouraged by 
the railroads will be useful. Automobile 
touring was also an early popular activity 
that can be researched. 

Anthropology/archeology - A considerable 
amount of basic knowledge can be devel- 
oped through historic site archeology 
bearing on material culture, rock art along 
the trail, routes and branches of the trail, 
fords, crossings, and the like. In addition, 
an examination of the network of trails as- 



sociated with the Santa Fe Trail can help in 
the development of interregional information 
(for example, the Chihuahua and Taos trails 
and the Boonslick Road). The consequences 
of the trail on cattle drives, textiles, alcohol, 
illicit trade, the depletion of wildlife, and the 
influence on sociopolitical patterns for 
Hispanics, American Indians, and Anglos will 
also be useful. A closer examination of the 
exploration and trading patterns before 1821 
is another important research topic. 
Verification of the trail route and related 
resources through nondestructive archeology, 
such as remote sensing, will be beneficial. 

The National Park Service does not anticipate 
creating archival storage facilities beyond those 
already existing at national park system units 
along the trail. If archival material became 
known and available, the Park Service may on 
request offer advice about appropriate archival 
care in non-NPS repositories that meet NPS 
archival storage requirements. 




Fort Lamed National Historic Site, Kansas 



27 



VISITOR USE 



The principal management objectives for visitor 
use are (1) to promote outdoor recreation, 
public enjoyment, appreciation, and under- 
standing of the Santa Fe Trail and related sites, 
as well as side trails, and (2) to control or 
prevent uses of the trail and related sites that 
impair resource integrity or public appreciation. 

Visitor programs and facilities will be provided 
to the extent that they are in harmony with the 
protection and preservation of significant 
cultural and natural resources. Also, they will 
be provided to support a broad range of recre- 
ational opportunities, including hiking, horse- 
back riding, and wagon riding (as close to the 
historic alignment as protection of historic and 
scenic resources will allow), visiting trail sites 
and related features, driving along an auto tour 
route, reading interpretive brochures and 
publications, and visiting associated museums 
and educational facilities along the route. 

Where consistent with the protection of signif- 
icant resource values, programs, facilities, and 
recreational opportunities will be provided for 
visitors with disabilities, including those with 
mobility, hearing, visual, or learning impair- 
ments. Such developments will meet or exceed 
federal accessibility standards and NPS com- 
pliance requirements. 

Interpretation will play a key role in fostering 
an understanding of the need for resource 
protection and preservation. The National Park 
Service will use cooperative agreements, limited 
financial assistance or seed money, donations, 
and other methods to help others develop and 
manage visitor use programs along the trail. 
Key coopcrators will include other federal 
agencies, as well as state, local, and nonprofit 
entities. Appropriate interpretive programs will 
be certified by the National Park Service. 



INTERPRETATION 

The objective of interpretation for the Santa Fe 
National Historic Trail is to instill an under- 



standing and appreciation of the trail's history 
and its resources, to develop public support for 
preserving resources, and to provide the infor- 
mation necessary for appropriate, safe, and 
minimum-impact use of trail resources. The 
National Park Service will cooperate with fed- 
eral, state, and local entities in interpreting the 
trail and its resources. The extent to which the 
Park Service provides assistance to others will 
be based, in part, on interpretive planning. 



Interpretive Theme and Subthemes 

The Santa Fe Trail is a part of the larger story 
of the settlement and development of North 
America. The trail story consists of different 
parts, which must be individually comprehended 
at first. They must then be related as a whole 
to understand how the trail fits into this 
important chapter in the history of the United 
States and Mexico. Equally important is the 
understanding that the Santa Fe Trail was a 
two-way road, with traders and travelers of 
each nation participating. 

The interpretive themes and subthemes identi- 
fied below provide the framework and guidance 
for interpreting the Santa Fe Trail in an inte- 
grated and systematic way for public benefit. 
This framework will be applicable regardless of 
the organization, agency, group, or individual 
responsible for the management of a particular 
site or segment. A separate interpretive pro- 
spectus will be prepared to prescribe appropri- 
ate techniques to effectively communicate 
specific interpretive themes and to ensure that 
programs at related sites complement rather 
than repeat one another. The interpretive 
prospectus will also provide the framework for 
producing coordinated museum exhibits, audio- 
visuals, wayside exhibits, and publications, 
along with detailed cost estimates for planning 
and production. 

Trailwide Theme. The interpretive theme for 
the Santa Fe Trail - which defines the general 
concepts for presenting the trail story to visitors 



28 



Visitor Use 



- will be commerce, culture, and conquest. 
Each of these is a key element in the story of 
the Santa Fe Trail. People then, as now, were 
motivated by the need for survival and by the 
desire for material or spiritual enrichment. The 
only difference is the means by which survival 
and enrichment are achieved. Reaching these 
goals depends on how successfully people 
interact with each other and with the forces of 
nature. Trade yielded riches, and with material 
wealth often came a desire for power and con- 
quest. Commerce brought peoples of different 
cultures together. 

The main theme is complemented by sub- 
themes that relate to the entire trail. The sub- 
themes, plus the key points that must be devel- 
oped to illustrate the theme statement, are listed 
in table 3. These subthemes may be part of an 
interpretive program anywhere along the trail. 

Regional Subthemes. Five interpretive regions 
have been identified along the Santa Fe Trail. 
Region 1 extends from Old Franklin to Council 
Grove, region 2 from Council Grove to the 
Middle Crossings, region 3 includes the 
Cimarron route, region 4 the Mountain route, 
and region 5 extends from Fort Union/Watrous 
(La Junta) to Santa Fe (see the Interpretive 
Regions map). In addition to the trailwide 
subthemes, additional subthemes have also been 
identified for each of these regions, and these 
themes will best be interpreted at sites within 
that region. The regional subthemes, along with 
the key points that will need to be covered to 
illustrate each subtheme, are listed in table 4. 

Interpretation of Related Trails. Where other 
trails intersect or branch off from the Santa Fe 
Trail, interpretive programs will focus on the 
significance and mutual influence the trails may 
have had. These include the major Santa Fe 
Trail branches, the Lewis and Clark Trail, the 
Oregon Trail, the California Trail, the Mormon 
Pioneer Trail, the Chihuahua Trail, the trail to 
Taos, the Camino-Real spur to Taos, and the 
Boonslick Road. Intersecting trails may also 
offer the potential for additional recreational 
uses that are not directly tied to the Santa Fe 
Trail (for example, the proposed KATY- 
Missouri River Trail in Missouri). 



The Chihuahua Trail is significant to the Santa 
Fe Trail as the link with central Mexico, and a 
feasibility study is warranted to determine the 
eligibility of that trail for national trail status. 



NPS Core Interpretive Programs 

The following elements will comprise the core 
or essential ingredients for interpretation along 
the Santa Fe National Historic Trail. Federally 
protected and certified components of the trail, 
as well as available resources, will give visitors 
an opportunity to understand and appreciate the 
meanings and relationships fostered by the trail 
on a firsthand basis. 

Wayside Exhibits. The National Park Service 
will help develop an interpretive wayside exhi- 
bit system at appropriate points along the trail. 
A standardized exhibit design will be used to 
reflect the flavor of the Santa Fe Trail and to 
help reinforce the public's perception of an 
integrated trail system. 

Publications. A vital part of the interpretive 
program will be useful and accurate publica- 
tions about the Santa Fe Trail. Fine publications 
already exist on the trail; however, two impor- 
tant publications that should be developed are 
a trail brochure and a handbook. The brochure 
should include a map of the entire trail route 
and show significant sites along the trail. It 
should also give an overview of the trail story 
and visitor information. The trail handbook 
should describe in depth the historical 
development and use of the Santa Fe Trail, 
along with detailed site information. 

These publications can be developed by the 
National Park Service or cooperating associ- 
ations (nonprofit organizations that publish 
books and sell them in NPS outlets and use the 
proceeds to help NPS interpretive and research 
efforts). They will be available at museums and 
interpretive facilities along the trail, as well as 
directly from the managing agencies. 

Other supplementary publications, as well as 
audiocassette tapes, may be developed as the 
need arises. 



29 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT AND USE PLAN 



Table 3: Trailwide Interpretive Topics, Subthemes, and Key Points 



Topic 



Subtheme 



Key Points 



Pre- 1821 - Informal 
Establishment of the 
Trail 



The Santa Fe Trail became a bridge 
for international trade and commerce 
between the United States and 
Spanish territory. Despite many 
earlier attempts to establish the 
bridge, the Spanish government 
effectively blocked trade. 



1. Spanish 

a. Exploration 

b. Colonial trade policy 

c. Trade with the Indians 

d. Missionary efforts 

e. American fur trade 

f. Trade fairs 

g. Mexican independence and removal of the 
trade barrier 

2. French 

a. Exploration - attraction to Santa Fe 

b. Smuggling 

3. American 

a. Identification of the potential for overland 
trade by Pike and others 

b. Attempts by Americans to settle and 
establish trade in New Mexico 

4. Native American 

a. Trade centers and trail routes 

b. River valley rendezvous sites 



Purpose of the Trail 
and How It Differs 
from Other Trails 



The Santa Fe Trail was a significant 
link for trade and commerce in the 
trail network across the North 
American continent in the 1800s. 



Commerce - buying, selling, and exchanging 
of manufactured, native, and other goods 
The trail was but one segment of a larger 
system of commerce between North America 
and Europe 

Expansion of trade along the trail from 1821 
until the coming of the railroad in 1880 
Evolution of trade 



Effect of the Trail 



Opening the trail had far-reaching 
effects on the United States, the 
provinces of northern Mexico, and 
American Indians. 



United States 

a. Economy 

b. Politics 

c. Expansion 

d. Agriculture 

e. Manufacturing 

f. Knowledge of the west and techniques of 
overland travel; application of knowledge 
to other trails 

g. Knowledge of Mexican control 
Mexico's northern provinces 

a. Economy 

b. Politics 

c. Expansion 

d. Agriculture 

e. Manufacturing 

f. Chihuahua Trail 

g. Effect of colonial trade policy 



30 



Visitor Use 



Topic 



Subtheme 



Key Points 



Effect of the Trail 
(cont.) 



3. American Indians 

a. Economy 

b. Diseases 

c. Demise of the buffalo 

d. Loss of land 

e. Conflicts 

4. Cultural, ethnic, and gender composition of 
participants, including interaction of cultures 
(Hispanic, American Indian, American, and 
others) 



Natural Elements 



Survival depends on successful 
interaction with natural forces. 



3. 



Biogeographic zones - the transition through 
the Central Lowland, Great Plains, Southern 
Rocky Mountain, and Basin and Range 
provinces 

a. Weather and climate 

b. Vegetation 

c. Water 

d. Physiographic features - the importance of 
landmarks 

Sustenance - food and water for both humans 
and livestock 
Environmental change 



Military Presence 



Conflict occurs when different 
peoples do not understand each other 
or have different goals. 



3. 



Mexican and American military escorts of the 
caravans - protection and self-sufficiency 

a. Military posts 

b. Military freighting 

Transition zones between cultures - cultural 

interaction at military posts 

Wars 

a. Texas Revolution 

b. Mexican War 

c. Civil War 

d. Indian wars 



Relationship to 
Today 



Human needs and desires do not 
change, only the means by which 
they are achieved. 



1. Relativity of time and distance 

2. Dangers 

3. Means of transportation 

4. Travel and trade routes (railroads and 
highways closely parallel the trail) 

5. Influence of each culture on the other 

6. Trail mythology and popular culture 



31 



lunossiiAi 



Os 



LLI 



z 

o- 

o 

LU 

cc 

LU 

> : 

LU 

IT 

Q- 



< z 

o H 

o ° 

I- l- 



LU 

J hO 

^ <> 

Z g: cr 
O lu lu 

r o M 

< co *: 

7 LOU 

DC LU £ D - 

LL co -J 

< Q Z 
I- LU O 
Zth 

< z < 

C/> 3 Z 



LU 



m 


O 


(N 


O) 


o 
o 
o" 


cr 
< 


«• 


o 


CN 


00 


(£> 


O 



• to 

• < 


5 

o 












CO 


T 












• z 


< 












• < 


_l 












• * 


* 












• 


o 












• LU 














• t- 














o 










01 


• - c 










LL 


•••* 










CO 


• o 












c 


• cc 












c/5 


ISING 
CIMAR 






c 
i 


01 

J O 

; a 

c 

' 2 






"(0 

*- 

c 
= 


o OO 
cc o O 

*° o 

D %°oooo 
/ o 


1 

1 


CO 

< 

X 

LU 




i 

i 

I 
( 

: 

: 
i 


3 re 

1 J 

> 

> ~ 

> 
: 

\ " 

5 — 
o 

c 


I I 

cc cc 

c c 
c 

Q 5 


re 

_l 

3 
O 

re 

c 
o 
c 

D 


/ °o 


1 1- 






1 I 


1 g 
) CJ 


oi a 
1- H 



LL 


1 1° 






-3 r 


(N 


pi •s 


uS 


1 I o 






<£ 2 


: z 


z z 


z 


1 >^ 






J c 


5 O 


o c 


o 


1 


o 
o 
o 






~ c 


3 O 


o u 


o 


I 






CO U 

o 

cc 


J LU 

: oc 


LU u. 

lx a 


LU 

cc 


V 


o 
o 
o 




5 

1 




O 
O 
o 




v : \ 




z 
o 

2 




O 
O 




V 


*\ °c 


) 


D 
H 




o 
o 


1 I 


o 

1 J 
< 


° V 

X 


O DC 




o I 


l! 


cc 


111 




«» 








Si 5 
° , 5 


LU 

LL 


":< 








O | LU 

7 


< 


»* 












z 


> 














CO ^ 









Visitor Use 



Table 4: Interpretive Regions, Subthemes, and Key Points 



Region 

1: Old Franklin to 
Council Grove, 
including Fort 
Leavenworth 



Subtheme 

Individual caravans formed 
throughout the region and traveled 
independently to Council Grove, 
where they organized into military- 
like formations that helped ensure the 
greatest chance of success and 
survival. 



Key Points 

1. Becknell and Old Franklin 

2. Arrow Rock 

3. Lexington 

4. Fort Osage 

5. Independence 

6. Fort Leavenworth 

7. Council Grove 

8. Cooperation and self-reliance 

9. Central lowlands - woods, plentiful water, 
forage, climate 

10. Missouri River 



2: Council Grove to 
Cimarron Route 



The transition from central lowlands 
to the plains required adaptation. 



1. Water 

2. Scarcity of wood 

3. Buffalo and other wild game 

4. Transition from long-grass to short-grass 
prairie 

5. Semiarid climate, buffalo grass and cactus 

6. Increased danger from Indians 

7. Arkansas River and trading ranches 



3: The Cimarron Despite the hazards of this route, it 

Route was favored from the early 1820s to 

the mid 1840s because it was 100 
miles shorter to Santa Fe or Missouri 
and it was suitable for wagon traffic. 



1. International territory 

2. Semiarid climate, sand and dry rivers 

3. Precious springs 

4. Severe storms (winter and summer) 

5. American Indians 

6. Escorts 

a. Mexican 

b. U.S. Army 

7. Various cutoffs 



4: The Mountain The Mountain route, opened to 

Route wagon traffic in the mid 1840s, 

afforded greater safety and water, but 
it was longer and traversed difficult 
mountain terrain. 



1. Change from plains to mountains, climate 

2. More secure, but more difficult for travelers 

3. Bent's Old Fort 

a. Fur trade 

b. Interaction of cultures 

4. Wars 

a. Mexican War 

b. Civil War 

5. Advent of the railroad 

6. American Indians 



5: Fort Union/ 
Watrous (La Junta) 
to Santa Fe 



Merchants from Missouri entering 
this region got their first glimpse of 
non-Indian settlement since leaving; 
traders from Mexico left the 
mountains and entered the Great 
Plains. 



2. 



First and last settlements 

a. Watrous (La Junta) - Mexican caravans 
gather for strength; junction of Mountain 
and Cimarron routes 

b. Las Vegas - declaration of U.S. occupation 
of New Mexico 

c. San Miguel del Vado - crossing of the 
Pecos River 

d. Santa Fe - destination/starting point; major 
trade center; stop from and to Chihuahua 

(1) Center of international trade 

(2) Center of domestic trade (after the 
Mexican War) 

Wars 

a. Texas Revolution 

b. Mexican War 

c. Civil War 

d. Indian wars 



33 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT AND USE PLAN 



Audiovisual Media. A major audiovisual pro- 
duction will be developed as an overall orien- 
tation to the significance of the trail. It will be 
shown at museums and interpretive facilities. 
Radio broadcast information using repeat mes- 
sages may be used to provide local trail infor- 
mation. The National Park Service will also 
explore the feasibility of interactive computer 
systems for interpretive applications. 

Traveling Exhibits. The National Park Service 
will develop small, portable exhibits telling the 
story of the Santa Fe Trail. These will be 
loaned for display at appropriate places or for 
special events along the trail. 

Outreach Activities. Outreach activities in local 
schools and publications will supplement the 
programs conducted at interpretive centers and 
sites along the trail. Public education is implied 
in the National Trails System Act, and the act 
establishes historic trails to promote their 
preservation, enjoyment, and appreciation. In 
the case of the Santa Fe Trail, the goal of off- 
site educational programs will be to reach the 
people who live along the trail corridor, 
especially those whose heritage was directly 
influenced by the trail, and those who can help 
to further the purposes of the Santa Fe National 
Historic Trail. 

Schools and civic organizations will be 
excellent places to initiate educational programs. 
With consistent efforts to include material about 
the Santa Fe Trail in the local history, 
geography, and social science curricula, a self- 
sustaining interest and understanding of the trail 
may be fostered in students. States and local 
school districts will be encouraged to develop 
appropriate courses. 

The National Park Service will also encourage 
trail-affiliated groups to initiate and provide 
outreach opportunities to schools and organiza- 
tions. To help implement these programs, the 
Park Service will offer a training program for 
volunteers wishing to address schools and 
groups. 

Other outreach concepts to be addressed in a 
media plan will include railroads, airlines, and 



buses, as well as highway rest areas and infor- 
mation centers. 

Special Interpretive/Educational Programs. 

The National Park Service will encourage 
others to develop and sponsor special interpre- 
tive and educational programs, such as walking 
tours and educational symposia. 

Interpretive Programs at National Park 
System Units. Fort Larned National Historic 
Site, Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site, 
Fort Union National Monument, and Pecos 
National Monument are subject to the laws, 
policies, and regulations governing the national 
park system. Because they are not units of the 
national trails system, their management and 
development will be technically independent of 
the management of the Santa Fe National 
Historic Trail. However, because of their 
integral relationship to the trail, a closely 
coordinated and mutually beneficial manage- 
ment relationship will be fostered between the 
units and the trail. 

All four sites now offer some interpretation of 
the Santa Fe Trail, but Fort Larned, Bent's Old 
Fort, and Fort Union, in particular, offer the 
opportunity to provide expanded interpretation 
of the trail. This can be achieved through 
orientation programs that will be similar at each 
site (exhibits, film, etc.), as well as through 
programs that place each particular region, 
locality, and site in a more precise context. The 
programs will be designed to promote firsthand 
experiences by motivating visitors to see 
important trail sites. Because they are units of 
the national park system, each area will 
undergo its own development and funding 
process, and ongoing operational costs will be 
funded through the normal appropriation 
process for each area. 

Fort Larned National Historic Site - Fort 
Larned was developed to protect trail 
commerce when the Plains Indians 
perceived that their very existence was 
being threatened by the trail. Subthemes 
relating to region 2 (Council Grove to the 
Cimarron route; see table 4) will be 
appropriate for interpretation at Fort 



34 



Visitor Use 



Lamed. Because of limited space within 
the adaptively used historic structures, the 
construction of a new visitor center facility 
to house existing and trail-related interpre- 
tive programs is proposed. 

Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site - 
Bent's Old Fort was a principal trade 
center on the Mountain route, and 
interpretive subthemes relating to the route 
can be presented here. Media and facility 
needs will be determined through the NPS 
planning process. 

Fort Union National Monument - Fort 
Union was established to guard the Santa 
Fe Trail and to serve as a military supply 
depot for other forts in the Southwest. Fort 
Union can be further interpreted and more 
closely integrated with the nearby Watrous 
(La Junta) area, which was the junction of 
the Mountain and Cimarron routes. 

Fort Union is closely tied with the 
Watrous National Historic Landmark 
District. Within the boundaries of the 
monument and the landmark district are 
the most extensive remnants of visible 
Santa Fe Trail ruts. The settlements in the 
La Junta Valley supplied the fort with 
provisions, and the fort paid rare cash to 
the settlers. The Fort Union/Watrous 
complex is reminiscent of the scene 
familiar to travelers 125 years ago. 

The NPS objectives in this area will be 
(1) to acquire a conservation easement to 
preserve the viewshed of Fort Union and 
to protect fort- related historic resources, 
including the Santa Fe Trail; (2) to provide 
off-site space for Fort Union's administra- 
tive offices to allow the development of a 
broader orientation program at the fort 
relating specifically to the trail; (3) to 
acquire or lease the Watrous House as the 
location for Fort Union's administrative 
functions and as a visitor contact point for 
1-25 travelers, which could be operated or 
staffed in cooperation with other agencies 
or organizations; and (4) to work cooper- 
atively with others to preserve significant 



resources in the Watrous National Historic 
Landmark District. 

The National Park Service will advocate a 
cooperative effort between federal, state, 
and local governments, as well as the 
private sector, to closely integrate the 
historic resources associated with the 
intersection of the Cimarron and Mountain 
routes. An interagency plan will be pre- 
pared to assess potential preservation, in- 
terpretation, and support development 
opportunities, as well as potential roles and 
responsibilities. The cooperative effort can 
address historic property leasing or 
acquisition, the conservation of natural and 
cultural landscape values, hiking and other 
recreational activities, and private sector 
support potential. 

Pecos National Monument - Pecos is 
primarily significant for its Pueblo Indian 
and Spanish colonial resources.The Pecos 
ruins served as a landmark on the trail and 
a place for travelers to explore. Prior to 
this it served as a trade center for Pueblo 
tribes and the nomadic Plains Indians. By 
1820 only a few families inhabited the 
pueblo, and by 1838 the pueblo had been 
abandoned. 

The visitor center provides some interpre- 
tation of Pecos and its relationship to the 
trail. Existing exhibits will be improved, 
based on future NPS interpretive planning. 
There are some remnants of ruts within the 
monument, but they are not available for 
visitor use. Trail interpretation could 
contribute to the loss of archeological 
artifacts because it would be difficult to 
monitor more dispersed visitor use in 
sensitive archeological areas. If additional 
lands with trail remnants become available 
for interpretation, visitor use opportunities 
may be expanded. 



Complementary Interpretive Programs 

Various agencies and groups provide or may 
plan to provide appropriate trail interpretive 



35 



THE COMPREHl£NSIVE MANAGEMENT AND USE PLAN 



programs at facilities they operate. The National 
Park Service has an opportunity to help 
coordinate the overall interpretation of the trail 
and to enhance the core interpretive program so 
as to encourage more firsthand resource 
experiences. 

Based on the following certification criteria for 
these programs, the National Park Service may 
provide various levels of interpretive assistance 
for complementary interpretive programs, in- 
cluding technical assistance or interpretive 
media, but it will not construct or operate such 
facilities (see "Site Development," page 41). 
Programs that meet the criteria will be certified 
as official interpretive components of the trail, 
and the use of the trail logo will be permitted 
on their signs and approved materials (see 
"Site/Segment Certification Procedures," page 
44). The Park Service will be able to advise 
applicants on how to meet the criteria. 

The trail states and others can play an 
appropriate role in identifying and providing 
facilities for such programs. The National Park 
Service will work with the states through 
memoranda of understanding (cooperative 
agreements) to help identify such sites (see 
appendix G). 

Certification Criteria for Complementary 
Interpretive Programs. The National Park 
Service will pursue early coordination with 
potential applicants to ensure that they 
understand the interpretive certification criteria. 
Applicants for NPS assistance and certification 
must show that they can provide 

accurate interpretive information to visitors 

appropriate curation of artifacts 

programs and facilities that are fully 
accessible to and usable by disabled people 
and that meet or exceed federal standards 
and NPS compliance requirements 

programs that are open daily according to 
a regular schedule for at least a season 



clean, well-maintained, and orderly 
facilities 

facilities that do not impair the integrity of 
the resources 

new facilities (if proposed) that will have 
a harmonious design theme 

programs and facilities that meet applicable 
local, state, and federal regulations for 
health and safety, equal employment op- 
portunity, and environmental compliance 

a defined system of financial accountability 
if special publications or other materials 
that are sponsored or provided by the Park 
Service are sold 

operating staff that are familiar with trail 
history and, as appropriate, personal 
interpretation techniques 

Once the certification criteria for comple- 
mentary interpretive programs have been met, 
the National Park Service can provide a range 
of interpretive assistance, according to the 
categories described below. 

Official certification will result in that particular 
interpretive program being made known to the 
public through appropriate trail information 
programs. Certification is not permanent, but it 
can be renewed on a three- to five-year basis, 
subject to satisfactory performance on the terms 
of the agreement. Decertification will result in 
the removal of the program from trail informa- 
tion programs and the removal of trail logo 
markers for the area. (Other actions might be 
taken as well, depending on the terms of 
certification.) 

Category One. This category will include state 
and other federally (non-NPS) constructed, 
operated, or substantially supported interpretive 
and educational facilities with cultural resources 
or programs that are tied to trail interpretation 
or recreational opportunities. The Park Service 
can provide technical assistance for interpretive 
planning, design, or curation; allow its publi- 



36 



Visitor Use 



cations to be sold; or provide exhibits or other 
media appropriate for the site. 

The extent to which media may be provided 
will depend on future NPS interpretive planning 
and consideration of the following factors: the 
site's historical significance to the trail; its 
outdoor interpretive/recreational values; its re- 
source integrity; its location relative to similar 
state or federal facilities/programs; its ability to 
convey trail themes and to educate and reach 
the public; its proximity to actual trail re- 
sources; and its ability to contribute to inter- 
pretive program balance between different sites. 

Category Two. This category will include city, 
county, regional, nonprofit interpretive and 
educational facilities that provide trail interpre- 
tation. The Park Service can provide technical 
assistance or, on a cost-share basis, a modular 
exhibit with a trail overview and local site 
information. If the site qualifies, NPS- 
sponsored publications or materials may be 
sold. 

Category Three. This category will include 
off-trail corridor interpretive and educational 
facilities that recognize and interpret the trail. 
The Park Service can provide technical assis- 
tance and, if the site qualifies, allow its 
publications or materials to be sold there. 



VISITOR USES ALONG THE TRAIL 

The Santa Fe National Historic Trail was 
established not only to commemorate the 
historical significance of the first major trans- 
Mississippi trail, but also to provide for outdoor 
recreational opportunities. One way for people 
to obtain a fuller appreciation of historic places 
and events is to actually visit those places and 
to see the historic resources firsthand. Along 
the Santa Fe National Historic Trail there will 
be opportunities for visitors to retrace the route 
through hiking and horseback riding, occasion- 
ally by driving animal-drawn wagons, and by 
following an automobile tour route. The 
guidelines described below will be used to 
determine the types of uses and experiences 
that will be offered. 



The National Park Service will encourage state 
and local governments, private groups, and 
landowners to help establish, maintain, and 
manage the various types of trails. Even though 
it will not be possible to establish a single, 
continuous trail all along the original route of 
the Santa Fe Trail, it will be possible to 
establish shorter trails at various locations. 
Some trails may be traversable in a few 
minutes, a few hours, or in a day, while others 
may require several days. Allowable uses will 
vary with time and place. Some trails may be 
open year-round, others only during limited 
periods. In some areas perhaps only one use 
(for example, hiking) will be suitable, while in 
other areas multiple uses (hiking, horseback 
riding, or wagons) may be accommodated. 

In all cases the rights of the landowner or 
managing agency will be respected during 
negotiations for cooperative agreements or 
right-of-way acquisitions. Furthermore, trails 
will not be established unless landowners are 
satisfied (1) with the arrangements for main- 
taining and operating the recreation trail, (2) 
with liability protection, and (3) with the 
nonbinding cooperative or the binding legal 
interests that they grant, sell, or exchange. 



Hiking and Horseback-Riding Trails 

The level of trail development will depend on 
site conditions, the amount of anticipated use, 
and other aspects. A basic foot trail may be 
nothing more than a foot-worn, single-file path, 
while a formal hiking trail or one that is 
accessible to disabled visitors may be 3 to 6 
feet wide, constructed with a base, and hard- 
surfaced or paved. Separate trails for horseback 
riding or wagons could parallel the historic trail 
route in some areas, depending on demand. 

Except for random walking or horseback riding 
in the historic ruts for close-up viewing 
purposes, actual recreational travel along 
existing trail remnants (which constitute 
approximately 15 percent of the trail route) will 
normally be discouraged. Where the resources 
are capable of withstanding the use, limited 
visitor activities - including hiking and 



37 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT AND USE PLAN 



horseback riding along appropriate trail routes 
- will be permitted. 

Where the expected visitor use on a particular 
segment could threaten or cause erosion, loss 
of vegetation, or alteration of ruts, the 
development of contemporary parallel recreation 
trails will be encouraged. New parallel recre- 
ation trails will be designed and aligned to 
minimize visual or physical encroachment on 
historic ruts, as well as other possible effects. 

Where no discernible trail ruts exist at the 
surface level (approximately 85 percent of the 
trail route), and where subsurface trail remnants 
will not be affected, visitor use can occur 
directly on the original trail alignment, if it is 
known. This should include the development of 
accessible trails for visitors with disabilities 
where feasible and consistent with the protec- 
tion of significant resource values. 

Appropriate visitor use rules and interpretive 
information will be provided through posted 
signs, wayside exhibits, or handouts. Where 
appropriate, cooperating landowners will be 
given public recognition for their contributions. 

At least three trail segments offer opportunities 
to develop long-distance, high-quality hiking 
trails. These include Cimarron National 
Grassland in Kansas (23 miles; the only 
potential long distance trail on public lands); 
the area from Trinidad, Colorado, over Raton 
Pass to Raton, New Mexico (25 miles); and the 
area from Cimarron to Fort Union in New 
Mexico (48 miles). These trail segments offer 
both outstanding scenic and interpretive values. 

Additional areas that might be suitable for 
hiking trail development include McNees 
Crossing to Round Mound, Round Mound to 
Point of Rocks, the Canadian River crossing to 
Wagon Mound, and Hochne to Model, 
Colorado. The most ideal areas for long- 
distance hiking arc generally those away from 
modern intrusions, so that visitors will have an 
opportunity to experience what it might have 
been like for traders long ago. Care will be 
taken in the development of hiking trails to 



ensure that no remnants of the actual trail are 
destroyed. 

Auto Tour Route 

An auto or vehicular tour route, and possibly a 
bicycle route, will be designated and marked 
along the existing highway system, consistent 
with the National Trails System Act. The tour 
route will be designed to allow reasonably 
simple and direct travel paralleling the 
approximate route of the main Santa Fe Trail 
between Missouri and New Mexico, keeping in 
mind travelers' convenience and year-round 
safety (see appendix E). The purpose of the 
tour route will be to heighten public awareness 
of the trail and to stimulate interest in visiting 
actual trail sites and segments off the auto tour 
route, as well as interpretive facilities. 

Occasionally the auto tour route will cross the 
historic route, but generally users will rely on 
a more detailed handbook or locally provided 
directional signs to important trail sites or 
segments that can be reached by way of inter- 
secting local roads that will not be marked. In 
some cases the tour route will closely follow 
the historic route, while in other cases it may 
be up to 15 miles away. (Appendix F includes 
recommended sign designs.) 

The auto tour route will be promoted through 
the coordinated marketing efforts of the five 
trail states' tourism departments (see 
"Marketing," page 47), and the route will be 
identified on highway maps. All roads will 
have paved surfaces, accommodate two-wheel- 
drive vehicles, and be open year-round (see 
Auto Tour Route map). 

The designated auto tour route will be marked 
with an identifying symbol using the official 
trail marker, with the approval and cooperation 
of state and local road-managing agencies (see 
"Marking the Trail," page 20; see also "Trail 
Marking Procedures," page 45). 



38 



LEXINGTON 



ARROW ROCK 





AUTO TOUR ROUTE 



HISTORIC ROUTE 







10 20 30 40 50 MILES 
I i I I I I 



NORTH 



SANTA FE 



,§ 



AUTO TOUR ROUTE 

SANTA FE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



624 I 20,000B 
DSC I MAR 90 




AUTO TOUFt ROUTE 
HISTORIC ROUTE 



AUTO TOUR ROUTE 

SANTA FE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMtNl OF HH IMMMMH 
NATIONAL PAHk SERVICE 

624 I 20,OQOB 

DSC I MAR 90 



Visitor Use 



Compatibility Guidelines 

For the purposes of this plan, it is not possible 
to specifically identify where certain uses will 
be allowed. Such a determination will require 
further site-specific planning, as well as 
contacts with interested landowners or other 
managing entities. However, the following 
general guidelines will be used to help 
determine where recreational uses may be 
appropriate. 

These guidelines will apply to trails on public 
as well as private lands, although some form of 
cooperative agreement or memorandum of 
understanding will be needed between the 
National Park Service and the responsible land 
manager or owner. The National Park Service 
will prepare information that will alert visitors 
about their responsibilities for properly using 
public and private lands. 

• Hiking, horseback riding, and wagons may 
usually be allowed within sight of one 
another. 

• Automobile tour routes should usually not 
be allowed within sight of visitors on 
hiking, horseback riding, or wagon trails 
(an exception will be at trailheads). 

• Horseback riding and wagon use may be 
allowed on the same trail; however, steep 
terrain could be a reason for separating 
such uses. 

• Horseback riding and hiking may share the 
same trail in low use areas. 

• Automobiles and bicycles may sometimes 
share the same route, depending on safety. 
(Bicycles are prohibited from interstate 
highways.) 



SITE DEVELOPMENT 

Any development outside federally administered 
areas will need to be funded by state or local 
governments or private groups. However, the 
National Park Service may provide, at its 



discretion, seed money, cost-sharing incentives, 
or technical assistance for planning, design, and 
legal and policy compliance (see page 49). 
Interpretive media programs may also be pro- 
vided where appropriate. The Park Service may 
also provide support and assistance in helping 
to obtain funding for development, including 
the solicitation of donations and grants. 

Appropriate visitor use facilities - including 
visitor/interpretive centers, wayside exhibits, 
signs or markers, highway pulloffs, comfort 
stations, parking areas, and recreation trails - 
will be encouraged. 

Support development for trail users may include 
campsites with pit toilets and fire grates, and 
stiles or gates so that hikers, horseback riders, 
or wagons can cross fence lines without letting 
out livestock. At trailheads and parking areas, 
orientation signs will be needed, and other 
amenities may be required to meet additional 
demand. 

The National Park Service will monitor designs 
and environmental or other necessary com- 
pliance actions (for example, access for visitors 
or employees with disabilities) to ensure that 
they are compatible with the objectives of the 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail. Such proposed 
development will also be reviewed by the 
National Park Service to ensure the protection 
of cultural and natural resources. Trail-related 
developments that do not meet NPS standards 
or requirements may result in noncertification 
or loss of certification for the site or segment 
(see "Site/Segment Certification Procedures," 
page 44). 



LIABILITY 

The Volunteers in the Parks Act of 1969 
provides a means for the federal government to 
protect cooperating landowners and others who 
volunteer to help with trail management, use, 
and resource protection from liability claims. 
The states through which the Santa Fe Trail 
passes all have legislation to protect landowners 
from liability due to the use of their holdings 
by the public for camping, hiking, sightseeing, 



41 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT AND USE PLAN 



or other approved recreational activity (see 
appendix B). This provision only applies when 
the public uses private lands without charge or 
other consideration. Any private property 
damage that is caused by trail users cannot be 
compensated by the federal government. 



TRAIL CARRYING CAPACITY 

A carrying capacity for the trail cannot be 
determined at this time. Future trail develop- 
ment and resultant use will be monitored. The 
possible effects of any significant changes in 



visitation patterns will be assessed, and 
measures will be taken as needed to prevent 
any adverse impacts on cultural or natural 
resources, or the quality of the visitor 
experience. 

Because the trail is so long and because a 
variety of places and activities will be involved, 
any carrying capacity limits that may be needed 
will vary from site to site. Visitor use trends at 
national park system units and other federally 
managed areas will be monitored for any signs 
of overuse that result in resource degradation or 
an unpleasant visitor experience. 





*fl**' 




Durham Ruts, Kansas 



42 



MANAGEMENT AND COOPERATION 



The primary management objectives for admin- 
istration are (1) to define proper roles and 
responsibilities for the National Park Service 
and other managing entities, (2) to coordinate 
and stimulate efforts to manage the trail, (3) to 
officially certify trail segments, and (4) to mark 
the trail route with standardized and recog- 
nizable markers. Procedures for certifying 
historic segments of the trail and for marking 
the trail are discussed below. 

An administrative position for the trail has been 
established in the NPS Southwest Regional 
Office in Santa Fe, New Mexico. NPS superin- 
tendents and staff at Fort Lamed, Bent's Old 
Fort, and Fort Union will be funded as field 
liaisons to assist the Southwest Regional Office 
in administering the trail. They will also assist 
with local outreach programs, and they will 
monitor trail segment status (for example, 
ownership changes, intrusions, site access 
changes). 

The Santa Fe National Historic Trail Advisory 
Council, whose members are appointed by the 
secretary of the interior, will be consulted by 
the National Park Service on various adminis- 
trative matters, including trail marking, protec- 
tion actions, interpretive programs, and guide- 
lines for management and use of the trail. 

The Santa Fe Trail Association will play a 
significant role in assisting with plan imple- 
mentation and trail management. The purpose 
of this nonprofit association is to promote 
public awareness, preservation of, and 
appreciation for this historic route through 
commemorative and educational activities. 



COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

The National Trails System Act encourages 
federal, state, and local involvement in 
development and management activities for the 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail that occur 
outside established federal areas. Direct federal 
funding will be limited to those portions of the 



national historic trail that lie within existing 
federal area boundaries. The NPS role will be 
to coordinate, facilitate, and monitor manage- 
ment and use of the trail. Therefore, other 
public agencies and private interests will have 
to help mark the trail route, secure necessary 
lands and interests, provide for the preservation 
of the trail's resources, and ensure the upkeep 
and accessibility of sites and segments for 
public educational and recreational benefits. 

Several management objectives have been 
defined to guide the establishment of a coop- 
erative management system for the Santa Fe 
Trail. Among these objectives are (1) coordi- 
nating efforts at all levels to fulfill the trail's 
purposes through plan implementation, (2) de- 
veloping effective working relationships 
between all managing entities, and (3) pro- 
moting the management or development of the 
whole trail as an integrated system. 

To help achieve these objectives, the National 
Park Service will develop memorandums of 
understanding, cooperative agreements, or 
interagency agreements, as needed, with other 
public agencies and private entities. These tools 
are governed by the provisions of the Federal 
Assistance and Interagency Agreements 
Guideline (NPS-20). 

A memorandum of understanding is defined as 
a mutual understanding between the National 
Park Service and a state or local government or 
other party that is set forth in a written 
document to which both parties are participants. 
A memorandum of understanding does not 
obligate funds. It is comparable to nonfederal 
cooperative agreements that may be negotiated 
between other parties. 

A cooperative agreement, when it involves a 
federal agency, is defined as a legal instrument 
reflecting a relationship between the federal 
government and a state or local government or 
other recipient when the purpose is the transfer 
of funds, property, services, etc., to accomplish 
a public purpose of support or stimulation 



43 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT AND USE PLAN 



authorized by federal statute. Limited financial 
assistance as provided by the National Trails 
System Act will be provided by the Park 
Service through its cooperative agreement 
process. 

An interagency agreement is an agreement 
between the National Park Service and another 
federal agency to provide supplies or services 
or to provide for cooperative relationships 
between the parties. The U.S. Forest Service, 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and Soil 
Conservation Service, among others, will be 
appropriate parties for interagency agreements. 

Generally, the various agreements will be 
established with agencies or entities that are 
responsible for major sites or that help to 
achieve management objectives for the trail. 
Any appropriate and legal provision can be 
included in an agreement. Possible provisions 
will include trail marking, development and 
management activities, support facilities, access 
and interpretation, right-of-way agreements with 
private landowners, technical assistance, and 
fund-raising activities. The agreements will last 
for five years for public agencies and private 
interests, and they will be reviewed as appro- 
priate. (Appendix G includes types of provi- 
sions that might be included in an agreement 
and a sample cooperative agreement.) 

For those managing entities responsible for 
relatively small sites or short segments, the 
working relationships will be adequately 
established through the certification process for 
protected status (see appendix H). 



SITE/SEGMENT CERTIFICATION 
PROCEDURES 

Trail segments and historic sites on nonfederal 
land (that is, land under the ownership or man- 
agement of state agencies, local governments, 
or private interests) will be officially included 
as part of the Santa Fe National Historic Trail 
if they are certified as protected segments by 
the secretary of the interior. Trail components 
that are on federally owned lands and that meet 
the historic trail criteria of the National Trails 



System Act are called federal protection 
components and do not require certification 
(NTSA, sec. 3[a][3]; see appendix A). 

The purpose of certification is to help ensure 
that sites or segments that are not federally 
controlled are managed to meet the basic 
preservation, interpretation, or recreation criteria 
of the National Trails System Act (sec. 
5[b][ll]) and any other criteria that are 
prescribed (sec. 3[a][3]). 

The proposed certification process for the Santa 
Fe National Historic Trail is described below. 
The National Park Service will pursue early 
coordination with potential applicants to ensure 
that they fully understand the site/segment 
certification procedures and to aid in their 
application efforts. Resources or interpretive 
programs will have to be documented in a 
brief, but comprehensive, application. Evidence 
that environmental or other necessary com- 
pliance procedures have been satisfactorily 
completed will be required (the Park Service or 
other agencies will provide technical assistance). 
Management objectives for the site or segment 
will be established, and management responsi- 
bilities will be defined. In the case of smaller 
additions to the trail system, the application 
will normally replace the need for detailed 
management planning and formal cooperative 
agreements. 

Official certification will result in that particular 
site or segment being made known to the 
public through appropriate trail information 
programs. Certification is not permanent, but it 
can be renewed on a three- to five-year basis, 
subject to satisfactory performance of the terms 
of the agreement. 

Decertification will result in the removal of the 
site or segment from trail information programs 
and the removal of trail logo markers for the 
area (other actions might be taken as well, 
depending on the terms of certification). 

The following criteria for protected trail sites 
and segments will supplement the criteria in 
section 5(b)(ll) of the National Trails System 
Act, as amended. 



44 



Mangement and Cooperation 



Qualifications - To be certified, sites and 
segments should have at least one signif- 
icant and direct tie to the Santa Fe Trail. 
The segment may also illustrate one or 
more facets relating to secondary themes 
or to recreational use. Part of the recre- 
ational experience must be based on histor- 
ical interpretation and appreciation. The 
content of interpretive programs should be 
substantively related to the trail's history 
(see "Interpretation," page 28). 

Legal and policy compliance - To be certi- 
fied, sites and segments that are proposed 
for development or modification should 
comply with applicable state, local, and 
federal laws, environmental laws, public 
health and safety requirements, equal em- 
ployment laws, and federal accessibility 
laws and NPS policy requirements for peo- 
ple with disabilities. The National Park 
Service or other qualified entities will help 
provide the technical assistance necessary 
for achieving compliance. 

Readiness - A site or segment should be 
ready for public use before it can be certi- 
fied as a protected site or segment. 

Public access - Where necessary for public 
appreciation and understanding, a site or 
segment should be reasonably accessible 
for public use. Reasonably accessible 
means areas that are free and open to the 
public, as well as areas that are restricted 
to day use or are accessible only through 
guided tours, subject to payment of a fee, 
or subject to other similar restrictions. 

Size - The size of a site or segment could 
vary, depending on use and purpose, but it 
should be large enough to protect signifi- 
cant resources, to offer opportunities for 
interpreting some aspect of the trail, or to 
accommodate recreational use based on 
historical interpretation and appreciation, 
such as retracing the trail route. 

Location - A certified protected segment 
should fall within the route identified for 
the Santa Fe National Historic Trail. 



Administration and management - The 
managing public agency or private entity 
should ensure that the segment will be 
available for public use upon certification. 
Failure to live up to the agreement will 
result in decertification. The managing 
entity must also identify how the seg- 
ment's resources will be preserved, pro- 
tected, and made available for public use. 
This may be done in a management plan 
or statement specifying such items as 
zoning or classification of use, the preser- 
vation of historic features, maintenance, 
rules and regulations, interpretive pro- 
grams, existing and proposed facilities, user 
fees, and similar matters. Other permitted 
uses should be addressed in terms of how 
they might affect the protection of 
resources and visitor safety. 

A sample request form for site/segment certifi- 
cation is included in appendix H. Information 
about how to request, complete, and submit 
applications will be provided to the public by 
the National Park Service. 

Landowners who want sites or segments on 
their properties to be recognized for their 
historical significance or made eligible for 
preservation assistance, but who do not want 
to foster or allow public interpretive or recre- 
ational use, will be encouraged to apply for 
listing on the National Register of Historic 
Places. This process allows for national recog- 
nition of the site or segment, but not for the 
general public knowledge and use expectations 
that would be afforded if it was a certified 
component of the Santa Fe National Historic 
Trail. 



TRAIL MARKING PROCEDURES 

Markers will be appropriately placed on posts 
along the actual trail route. Where the trail 
crosses lands administered by federal agencies, 
markers will be erected and maintained by the 
managing agency, in accordance with standards 
established by the secretary of the interior. 
Where the trail crosses nonfederal lands, 
uniform markers will be provided to coopera- 



45 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT AND USE PLAN 



ting agencies or private interests, in accordance 
with cooperative agreements, and they will be 
erected and maintained by those entities. 

Where the trail extends across cultivated lands 
or other developed areas, the posts should be 
located at the edges of these areas or in a way 
that will not interfere with the established land 
uses. No markers will be erected on privately 
owned land without the owner's consent. Addi- 
tional temporary markers may be used to help 
establish a designated footpath along a preferred 
alignment. 

With the cooperation and assistance of road- 
managing agencies, auto tour signs will be 
placed along federal, state, and county roads at 
appropriate road junctions (consistent with the 
sign regulations of the state highway depart- 
ment or the Federal Highway Administration). 
Markers may be placed on existing road posts 
where appropriate. At locations where the trail 
crosses the auto tour route (except for interstate 
highways), signs with arrows pointing out the 
historic alignment may be posted, if conditions 
are deemed safe. A suggested information sign 



to direct auto tour users to local sites or 
segments is provided in appendix F. The Na- 
tional Park Service is not authorized to provide 
these directional signs, but it can authorize the 
use of the Santa Fe Trail marker on them. 

The National Park Service, through the 
secretary of the interior, is authorized to accept 
the donation of trail markers manufactured to 
its standards and to accept funds for the 
manufacture of such signs. The five trail states 
will be asked to manufacture, install, maintain, 
and replace the auto tour route markers 
according to the specifications of their respec- 
tive highway departments. 

Signs along federally funded roads and 
highways must conform to the Federal Highway 
Administration's Manual on Uniform Traffic 
Control Devices. The recommended trail marker 
symbol or logo must be approved by the 
Federal Highway Administration. Highway de- 
partment use of the logo will be consistent with 
the uses authorized by the National Park 
Service. 




■Ws 



Autograph Rock, Oklahoma 



46 



MARKETING 



Consistent with the intent of Congress to have 
the trail provide an economic stimulus through 
tourism, and consistent with the purpose of the 
National Trails System Act to provide for 
public enjoyment, appreciation, and commemo- 
ration of the Santa Fe Trail, a coordinated 
marketing plan is proposed. By providing this 
plan, the National Park Service will help define 
an effective relationship between its interpreta- 
tion and public information responsibilities and 
the promotional activities that are beyond its 
authorities, but that are within the purview of 
state and local governments, and business 
interests. A coordinated trailwide marketing or 
promotional strategy will provide the Park 
Service with an opportunity to further trail 
purposes through a mutually beneficial 
cooperative relationship. 

The National Park Service will facilitate 
bringing together the five state tourism 
departments for the purpose of their forming an 
interstate trail promotion task force. The task 
force will work to promote attractions, 
activities, and events along the Santa Fe 
National Historic Trail to domestic and foreign 
travelers. The auto tour route will be a 
significant component of trail marketing efforts. 
The state tourism offices will help local 
chambers of commerce, convention and visitor 
bureaus, and similar groups to coordinate their 
trail promotion activities. 



• Provide NPS assistance so that the task 
force will have accurate information for 
promotional efforts. 

• Provide the task force with NPS trail 
brochures or other materials. 

• Provide for task force advertising literature 
(e.g., service directory) to be distributed at 
appropriate trail sites or other suitable 
locations. 

• Inform task force members how to obtain 
NPS permission to use the official trail 
marker symbol for appropriate purposes. 

Actions that may be undertaken by the task 
force to assist the National Park Service include 
the following: 

• Help the National Park Service and, 
through it, other site-managing entities to 
encourage visitor respect for the appro- 
priate use of trail resources, especially 
those on private property. 

• Help control trail and site promotion so as 
to protect less developed or fragile re- 
sources from overuse and adverse impacts. 

• Help protect and enhance visual quality 
along the trail. 



Residents of the five trail states, educators, 
historians, history buffs, free-lance writers, tour 
operators, transportation companies, and travel 
agents will be especially important target 
groups. The use of media that encourage travel 
or focus on history will be important. 

The National Park Service will negotiate an 
agreement with the task force to address how 
the Park Service can assist the task force and 
vice versa. Actions that may be undertaken by 
the Park Service include the following: 

• Coordinate NPS interpretive efforts with 
the promotional activities of the task force. 



The task force will work to promote the Santa 
Fe National Historic Trail as a single, inte- 
grated trail system. Within that overall system, 
the task force may also provide for a coordi- 
nated series of regionally oriented auto tour 
route brochures that provide visitors with more 
detailed information about activities and support 
services. A videotape or slide show could be 
produced to interpret the Santa Fe Trail and 
related sites for use at travel shows, group 
meetings, schools, and other occasions. 

The National Park Service may authorize the 
limited use of the Santa Fe National Historic 
Trail marker for select special events, if the 



47 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT AND USE PLAN 



event will help to advance the objectives of the 
trail in a substantial way and if there are no 
liability consequences. 

The National Park Service will encourage all 
trail advocates to stress protection and conser- 
vation in their promotions. Local promotion ef- 
forts may involve state historic register plaques, 
plaques for local historic sites, walking or 
driving tours of state and local areas of interest, 
and special events fashioned around themes re- 



lating to the trail. In addition, if no other 
organization does so, the Southwest Regional 
Office will prepare an annual special events 
calendar. 

The "Passport to Your National Parks" stamp 
book program will be expanded to include the 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail. A separate 
montage stamp series will be created to provide 
a complete illustration and to document that the 
user has visited key sites along the entire trail. 




Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site, Colorado 



•IS 



COMPLIANCE 



The Draft Comprehensive Management and Use 
Plan and Environmental Assessment for the 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail was distributed 
to the public for review and comment in May 
1989. The assessment analyzed the potential 
impacts of implementing the proposed action or 
its alternatives. Based on public comments and 
an evaluation of the impacts of the proposed 
action, a finding of no significant impact was 
issued on May 23, 1990. 

To comply with the purpose and intent of the 
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and 
other related laws, the impacts of site-specific 
actions called for in this plan will still have to 
be evaluated. This may require additional com- 
pliance with NEPA and other federal acts and 
regulations, including the National Historic 
Preservation Act of 1966, as amended; the 
Endangered Species Act; laws relating to access 
for disabled persons; and executive orders 
relating to floodplains and wetlands. 

The National Park Service is responsible for 
coordinating compliance with federal laws and 
regulations for this plan. Compliance require- 
ments and the NPS role in meeting them will 
depend on the type of action being taken, its 
relationship to the trail, and the project sponsor. 

For plan actions being carried out by other 
federal, state, or local organizations, the 
Park Service will provide technical assis- 
tance in meeting the requirements of 
NEPA or other federal regulations. 

Some actions taken by private owners or 
others at trail sites or routes would not be 
directly related to this plan and would 
have no federal involvement through 
funding, licensing, permitting, endorsement, 
or other support. Such actions are not 
subject to compliance with NEPA or other 
federal regulations. However, state or local 
requirements may apply. 

Some projects proposed by state or local 
governments do involve federal financial 



support or permits. Projects that are not 
implementing recommendations in this plan 
may still have an impact on trail resources. 
For example, a federally assisted highway 
project proposed by a state government 
could adversely affect historic resources. In 
this situation, the project sponsor or lead 
federal agency would be responsible for 
meeting NEPA and other compliance re- 
quirements. The Park Service would pro- 
vide comments or other assistance in 
addressing impacts on trail resources. 

Failure to meet applicable compliance require- 
ments for actions to implement this plan may 
result in the withholding or loss of NPS certi- 
fication or other official recognition. However, 
a cooperative agreement, easement, certified 
trail status, or listing of a site on the National 
Register of Historic Places does not necessarily 
ensure that it will be protected from private, 
state, local, or other federal agency actions. 

To comply with the provisions of section 504 
of the Rehabilitation Act, as amended, and the 
Civil Rights Restoration Act, access to pro- 
grams and activities for persons with mobility, 
hearing, visual, or learning impairments must 
be provided according to federal standards (for 
example, the Uniform Accessibility Standards) 
when federal financial assistance is used for 
such programs. Where other agencies or organi- 
zations agree to display federally owned exhi- 
bits or to distribute information materials 
without receiving federal financial assistance, 
information will need to be physically or pro- 
grammatically accessible to disabled persons. 
Where the Park Service provides financial as- 
sistance to an agency or organization to devel- 
op interpretive media, those programs as well 
as all other programs conducted by the benefit- 
ing agency or organization, must be physically 
or programmatically accessible. The Park 
Service will use discretion, consistent with 
federal law and NPS accessibility policies, 
when negotiating agreements with entities who 
conduct programs or activities that fail to 
provide for the needs of disabled persons. 



49 



FUNDING 



Funding to administer, protect, and develop the 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail will come from 
a variety of sources. State and local govern- 
ments can provide significant contributions 
toward trail management and development 
through general tax funds, conservation or 
development bonds, tax incentives, the Land 
and Water Conservation Fund or the Historic 
Preservation Fund, and other funding methods. 
Private organizations and individuals can also 
contribute by donating labor and materials, 
conducting fund-raising efforts, and soliciting 
monetary contributions. 

The National Park Service will obtain trail 
funds through the following methods. 

ADMINISTRATION 

The estimated annual operating cost for 
administering the trail is $225,000, based on 
1990 costs. This amount will provide for 
Southwest Regional Office staff salaries, travel, 
supplies, and routine technical assistance 
projects; the partial support of NPS field staff 
at Fort Lamed, Bent's Old Fort, and Fort 
Union who may assist the Southwest Regional 
Office with routine administrative matters; and 
recurring operational costs such as trail markers 
and brochure production and distribution. 
Funding will be requested through the park 
management funding of the NPS operations 
budget. 



TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE 



Funds to cover major technical assistance pro- 
jects (for example, large-scale planning, design, 
or preservation efforts) beyond administrative 
staff capabilities will be requested from the 
NPS rivers and trails conservation assistance 
program, planning funds, the cultural resource 
preservation program, or other appropriate 
sources. 



DEVELOPMENT/PRESERVATION 

Funds to develop recreational facilities or to 
preserve and stabilize cultural resources on 
national park system lands will be derived from 
the NPS annual construction fund, the cultural 
resource preservation program, donations, or 
other appropriate funding sources. NPS-provided 
interpretive programs and media will be funded 
through construction funding or other available 
sources. Funds may be used for contracted 
services. 



LIMITED FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 

Discretionary funds to stimulate trail preserva- 
tion, management, and development efforts at 
the local level or to respond to cost-sharing 
opportunities will be requested from the rivers 
and trails conservation assistance program or 
other appropriate sources. 



50 



THE SANTA FE TRAIL ENVIRONMENT 






"■'...--.' • 



^Mi0^^ mr 



, ^^f^-':- : ^ i '^^^^"; rc: -- ; 











The view from our camp (near summit of Raton Pass) is inexpressibly 
beautiful, and reminds persons of the landscapes of Palestine. 

Lt. Wm H. Emory 



NATURAL ENVIRONMENT 



PHYSIOGRAPHY 

In central Missouri, where the eastern end of 
the Santa Fe Trail is located, the terrain is 
characterized by broad, flat, low elevations 
along river corridors, and the elevation varies 
from 500 to 1,000 feet above sea level. The 
trail passes through the Central Lowland 
physiographic province, and up to 80 percent of 
the terrain can be described as gently rolling 
lands. In western Missouri the trail crosses the 
Ozark Plateaus and Osage Plains. 

In Kansas the topography along the trail con- 
sists of rolling hills with rock outcrops and 
valleys in the eastern third as it crosses the 
Dissected Till Plains and Osage Plains of the 
Central Lowland physiographic province to the 
western edge of the Flint Hills. The trail then 
enters the Dissected High Plains and High 
Plains, where the terrain changes to rolling 
plains, broken occasionally by steep hills, rock 
outcrops, canyons, and valleys. The eastern 
third of the state lies mostly within the Central 
Lowland province, while the rest is within the 
Great Plains province. The trail enters Kansas 
at an elevation of about 760 feet above sea 
level at the Missouri border, with the Cimarron 
route leaving the state at about 3,610 feet on 
the Oklahoma border, and the Mountain route 
at about 3,650 feet on the Colorado border. 

The Oklahoma Panhandle is within the Great 
Plains physiographic province. The landscape 
is characterized by gentle upland slopes broken 
by bluffs, hills, mesas, and canyons - all 
characteristic of the high plains. Total relief 
varies from 100 to 300 feet; elevations from 
2,000 to 5,000 feet. 

In southeastern Colorado the Mountain route 
crosses the High Plains section of the Great 
Plains and skirts the Southern Rocky Mountain 
physiographic province. Southeastern Colorado 
displays moderate relief (300 to 500 feet) and 
gentle upland slopes. South-central Colorado 
exhibits considerable relief (over 3,000 feet) 
and gentle slopes. Topography varies in the 



southeast from 3,000 to 5,000 feet, while 
elevations in south-central Colorado rise from 
5,000 to 9,000 feet. 

Northeastern New Mexico lies in the Great 
Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountain phys- 
iographic provinces. Northeastern New Mexico 
consists of tablelands displaying considerable 
relief (500 to 1,000 feet), with most of the land 
classified as gently rolling; topography varies 
from 5,000 to 7,000 feet before the mountains 
rise to 13,000 feet nearer Santa Fe. The terrain 
around Santa Fe consists of mesas and gentle 
slopes and is part of the Basin and Range 
physiographic province. 



CLIMATE 

From the eastern end of the trail in Missouri 
through the Flint Hills of eastern Kansas the 
climate is classified as subhumid, with an 
annual east to west rainfall of 48 to 32 inches. 
Rainfall drops off rapidly farther west along the 
trail. Through this region precipitation may 
occur an average 95 to 100 days per year, 
although the Osage Plains in the eastern third 
of Kansas receive erratic precipitation, with the 
likelihood of fewer days receiving moisture. 
Thunderstorms occur 50 to 55 days per year in 
Missouri, and less from the Missouri border to 
Council Grove. Tornadoes occur during the 
spring and summer, particularly on the plains. 
Mean annual snowfall is 1 6 to 20 inches. Mean 
monthly temperatures range from 30° F. to 80° 
F, with greater extremes in Kansas. 

The climate on the High Plains - western 
Kansas, the Oklahoma p anhandle, eastern 
Colorado, and northeastern New Mexico - is 
similar, with 8 to 16 inches of moisture 
annually and precipitation on an average 70 to 
85 days. Thunderstorms occur 45 to 70 days 
per year, with the most being recorded in New 
Mexico. The least annual snowfall is in 
Oklahoma (8 to 16 inches per year), with 
increasing amounts in southeastern Colorado 
(24 to 32 inches) and northeastern New Mexico 



53 



THE SANTA FE TRAIL ENVIRONMENT 



(16 to 36 inches). Mean monthly temperatures 
range from lows of 30° F. to highs of 85° F. 
Tornadoes may occur all along that portion of 
the trail on the Great Plains. 



VEGETATION 

Vegetation along the Santa Fe Trail in Missouri 
and eastern Kansas is characterized by tall- 
grass prairie and oak/hickory forests. Through 
the Till Plains and Osage Plains of eastern 
Kansas grasslands predominate, particularly big 
bluestem, switchgrass, and Indian grass. Trees, 
including cottonwood, elm, and ash, grow 
naturally only in stream valleys. 

The central Kansas grasslands are made up of 
predominantly mixed-grass prairie species, 
including short-grass species such as blue 
grama and buffalo grass on uplands, and little 
bluestem and sideoats grama in valleys and 
depressions. Western Kansas is primarily short- 
grass prairie, with gramas, buffalo grass, and 
sandsage predominating. Plains cottonwoods and 
scrub trees and shrubs grow along watercourses 
with surface flow. 

Vegetation in the Oklahoma panhandle is essen- 
tially the same as in western Kansas and is 
characterized by short-grass prairie. 

In southeastern Colorado and northeastern New 
Mexico vegetation is typified by grama and 
buffalo grasslands. Some juniper/pinyon wood- 
lands and pine/Douglas-fir forest are scattered 
along the trail route in New Mexico. 



WILDLIFE 

Wildlife species common to areas along the 
Santa Fe Trail are listed in table 5. 



THREATENED OR ENDANGERED 
SPECIES 

Threatened or endangered animal and plant 
species that may exist along the Santa Fe Trail, 
plus species that are of concern to the various 



states, are listed in appendix I. Site-specific 
surveys will be conducted before any trail- 
related actions are taken to ensure that such 
species will be protected. 

One federal threatened plant species may occur 
along the Santa Fe Trail within Missouri, and 
four candidate species that are being considered 
for listing could occur along the trail. In 
addition, Missouri has identified a number of 
rare or threatened species. Endangered habitats 
that have been identified by the state and that 
may occur along the trail include saline springs, 
saline marshes, and saline seeps; rare habitats 
include limestone glades and fens. 

Kansas has seven federal endangered or threat- 
ened animal species that could occur along the 
Santa Fe Trail and two threatened plant species. 
Nineteen candidate animal and plant species are 
being considered for federal listing (categories 
1 and 2), and three species are proposed for 
listing. 

Five federal endangered species and one 
threatened species may occur in Oklahoma 
along the Santa Fe Trail. Additionally, nine 
candidate species (category 2) are being 
considered for federal listing. Oklahoma has 
identified several wildlife species as being 
endangered or of special concern. The state is 
currently developing an official list of 
threatened and endangered plant species. 

Three federal endangered and one threatened 
animal species could occur along the Santa Fe 
Trail as it crosses southeastern Colorado. A 
total of 18 animal species have been identified 
by the state as rare, threatened, or unique. Two 
plants are considered as federal category 2 
species, and three species have been identified 
as rare by the state. 

Three federal endangered and one threatened 
species have been recorded in areas along the 
Santa Fe Trail in northeastern New Mexico. In 
addition, one category 2 species is being 
considered for federal listing. New Mexico has 
identified 23 state endangered animal species 
and three sensitive plant species. 



54 



Natural Environment 



Table 5: Selected Wildlife Species along the Santa Fe National Historic Trail Route 



Missouri 










Mammals 


Mink 


Birds 


Mourning dove 


Thrush 


Beaver 


Muskrat 


Black duck 


Pheasant 


Turkey 


Cottontail rabbit 


Opossum 


Bobwhite quail 


Prairie chicken 


Vireo 


Coyote 


Raccoon 


Field sparrow 


Rail 


Wood duck 


Gray fox 


Red Fox 


Heron 


Red-winged black- 


Woodpeckers 


Gray squirrel 


Skunk 


Killdeer 


bird 


Woodcock 




White-tailed deer 


Meadowlark 


Ruffed grouse 




Kansas 










Mammals 


Prairie dog 


Dickcissel 


Robin 


Coachwhip snake 


Antelope 


Raccoon 


Field sparrow 


Scaled (blue) quail 


Common hognose 


Badger 


Red fox 


Hawks 


Thrushes 


snake 


Beaver 


Rodents 


Killdeer 


Turkey 


Massasauga 


Cottontail rabbit 


Skunk 


Lark bunting 


Vireo 


Prairie rattlesnake 


Coyote 


Tree squirrel 


Meadowlark 


Waterfowl (ducks. 


Western hognose 


Fox 


White-tailed deer 


Mourning dove 


geese) 


snake 


Gopher 


Woodchuck 


Owls 


Woodpeckers 




Gray squirrel 




Prairie chicken 


Wren 


Amphibians 


Jackrabbit 


Birds 


Red-winged black- 




Cricket frog 


Mule deer 


Bobwhite quail 


bird 


Reptiles 


Leopard frog 


Muskrat 


Brown thrasher 


Ring-necked 


Blue racer 


Garden toad 


Opossum 


Cardinal 


pheasant 


Bull snake 


Plains toad 


Oklahoma 










Mammals 


Kit fox 


Birds 


Hawks 


Ring-necked 


Antelope 


Mule deer 


Bobwhite quail 


House finch 


pheasant 


Badger 


Porcupine 


Brown towhee 


Long-billed curlew 


Scaled (blue) quail 


Bobcat 


Prairie dog 


Curved-billed 


Magpies 


Turkey 


Cottontail rabbit 


Raccoon 


thrasher 


Owls 


Waterfowl 


Gray fox 


Spotted skunk 


Golden eagle 


Pinyon jay 


Woodhouse jay 


Jackrabbit 


Striped skunk 


Green-tailed towhee 






Colorado 










Mammals 


Fox 


Raccoon 


Birds 


Scaled (blue) quail 


Antelope 


Jackrabbit 


Skunk 


Bobwhite quail 


Turkey 


Beaver 


Mule deer 


White-tailed deer 


Hawks 


Waterfowl (ducks. 


Cottontail rabbit 


Muskrat 




Mourning dove 


geese) 


Coyote 


Prairie dog 




Ring-necked 
pheasant 




New Mexico 










Mammals 


Mink 


Burrowing owl 


Nuthatch 


Woodpecker 


Antelope 


Mule deer 


Curlew 


Pheasant 




Badger 


Muskrat 


Field sparrow 


Raven 


Reptiles 


Beaver 


Pocket gopher 


Golden eagle 


Red-tailed hawk 


Snakes 


Black bear 


Prairie dog 


Goldfinch 


Red-winged black- 


Lizards 


Bobcat 


Raccoon 


Horned lark 


bird 




Cottontail rabbit 


Striped skunk 


Jay 


Roadrunner 


Amphibians 


Coyote 


Weasel 


Killdeer 


Scaled (blue) quail 


Toads 


Deer mouse 




Lark bunting 


Thrush 


Tortoises 


Elk 


Birds 


Magpie 


Turkey 




Gray fox 


Bald eagle 


Marsh hawk 


Vulture 




Ground squirrel 


Band-tailed pigeon 


Meadowlark 


Waterfowl (ducks, 




Jackrabbit 


Blue grouse 


Mourning dove 


geese) 





55 



THE SANTA FE TRAIL ENVIRONMENT 



FLOODPLAINS/WETLANDS 

Executive Order 11988, "Floodplain Manage- 
ment," requires federal agencies to avoid to the 
extent possible the long- and short-term adverse 
impacts associated with the occupancy and 
modification of floodplains wherever there is a 
practicable alternative. Also, federal policy 
virtually prohibits federal agencies from taking 
certain actions in a 500-year floodplain, 
including the storage of irreplaceable cultural 
artifacts. The National Park Service will take 
appropriate action to ensure that trail develop- 
ments comply with this policy. 



PRIME AND UNIQUE FARMLANDS 

The Soil Conservation Service has designated 
prime farmlands in several counties along the 
Santa Fe Trail, but no unique farmlands have 
been designated. Counties with prime farmlands 
are listed in table 6. 



Table 6: Prime Farmlands 

(by COUNTY) 



Missouri 


Kansas (cont.) 


Oklahoma 


Howard 


Rice 


Cimarron 


Saline 


Barton 




Lafayette 


Pawnee 


Colorado 


Jackson 


Ford 


Prowers 




Gray 


Bent 


Kansas 




Otero 


Drained 


Irrigated 


Las Animas 


Johnson 


Finney 




Douglas 


Haskell 


New Mexico 


Osage 


Grant 


Union 


Lyon 


Stevens 


Mora 


Morris 


Kearny 




Marion 









Wagon Mound, New Mexico 






56 



CULTURAL RESOURCES 



Altogether 194 high-potential historic sites and 
30 trail segments with evidence of wagon ruts 
(totaling 183.6 miles) have been identified as 
significant along the primary Santa Fe National 
Historic Trail route. Although not included as 
part of the designated trail route, major 
branches of the trail have also been identified, 
and several sites along them have been included 
in the historic site listing. The branches include 
the Aubry cutoff, the military road from 
Granada, Colorado, to Fort Union, the military 
road from Fort Hays to Fort Dodge, and the 
Fort Leavenworth military roads. 



As shown in table 7, of the 194 sites deter- 
mined to be significant, 12 are on federal lands, 
29 on state or local lands, and 153 on privately 
owned lands. Of the 30 high-potential segments 
identified along the main route, 3.5 miles are 
on federal lands and 180.1 miles on private 
lands (see table 8). The high-potential historic 
sites are listed on the Historic Route map and 
are briefly described in appendix C. The 
location of individual route segments is shown 
in table C-l in appendix C. 



Table 7: Location and Ownership of Historic Sites 



Ownership 


Missouri 


Kansas 


Oklahoma 


Federal 








Forest Service 




2 




National Park Service 




1 




Veterans Administration 








U.S. Army 
Subtotal 




5 
8 




State/Local 








State 


5 


5 




Local 

Subtotal 


5 

10 


4 
9 




Private 


_38 


59 


7 


Total 


48 


76 


7 



Colorado New Mexico Total 



l 
_! 

2 
10 



14 



1 

_7 

8 

39 

49 



2 

4 

1 

_5 

12 

12 
17 
29 

153 

194 



Note: Even though most sites are on lands owned by a single entity, 11 involve mixed public/private ownerships. 
For this table, each of these sites is assigned to the jurisdiction having predominant ownership. The listed sites 
include high-potential sites and federally protected components. 

Table 8: Location and Ownershd 3 of Route Segments 
(in miles) 

Ownership Missouri Kansas Oklahoma Colorado New Mexico Total 



Federal 














Forest Service 




2.5 








2.5 


Park Service 
Subtotal 




15 






1.0 
1.0 


1.0 
3.5 


Private 




8.7 


12.0 


7.9 


151.5 


180.1 


Total 





11.2 


12.0 


7.9 


152.5 


183.6 



Note: The listed segments include high-potential sites and federally protected components. Routes with visible ruts, 
as well as areas with recreation potential, are included. 



57 



SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT 



LANDOWNERSHIP AND USE 

Patterns of landowncrship and use for the Santa 
Fe Trail were calculated in linear miles because 
of the trail's long, narrow nature. Approxi- 
mately 90 percent of the land along the trail 
corridor is privately owned. State and local 
governments own about 6 percent of the land, 
while the federal government owns the other 4 
percent. No areas of tribal ownership or trust 
land were identified along the trail corridor. 

About 64 percent of the land along the trail is 
used for rangeland and pasture, and another 17 
percent is dedicated to crop production. Rural 
residential and urban development accounts for 
only 7 percent of total land use. The remainder 
of land along the corridor is divided between 
highway rights-of-way (10 percent) and recre- 
ation (2 percent). 



follows US 350 to Trinidad. From Trinidad to 
Watrous the trail meanders west of 1-25. 

Air service to the region is provided by several 
major carriers through both direct and 
connecting flights. There are major commercial 
airports at Kansas City, Topeka, Wichita, and 
Albuquerque. Regional carriers provide service 
to several smaller cities. Many small towns 
have municipal airports or landing strips. 

AMTRAK provides passenger service to several 
cities along the trail corridor. The route of 
AMTRAK's Southwest Chief closely approxi- 
mates the Mountain route. Originating in 
Chicago and ending in Los Angeles, the 
Southwest Chief stops in Kansas City, 
McPherson, Great Bend, Dodge City, Garden 
City, La Junta, Trinidad, Raton, Las Vegas, and 
Santa Fe, as well as passing through several 
other cities along the historic route of the trail. 



ACCESS AND TRANSPORTATION 

The Santa Fe Trail corridor is served by an ex- 
tensive network of federal, state, and locally 
maintained highways and secondary roads. Even 
though the trail route is seldom immediately 
adjacent to a major roadway, several primary 
highways follow routes that somewhat parallel 
the trail. Some historic sites and points of 
interest are easily accessible from these main 
thoroughfares by way of secondary highways 
and local streets. 

In Missouri the trail runs along the Missouri 
River, north of 1-70. After crossing into Kansas 
the trail parallels US 56 from near the Missouri 
line to Cimarron, then southwest through 
Oklahoma and into New Mexico, where US 56 
ends at the town of Springer. The route then 
follows 1-25 to Watrous, where it rejoins the 
Mountain route and parallels 1-25 to Santa Fe. 

The Mountain route parallels US 50 from 
Cimarron, Kansas, to La Junta, Colorado. At La 
Junta the trail turns to the south and roughly 



POPULATION 

The Santa Fe National Historic Trail traverses 
an almost entirely rural section of the country 
that is characterized by very low population 
densities. The only area of significant urban 
development along the corridor is Kansas City, 
where the population density exceeds 1,000 
people per square mile. By contrast, the 
population density near the trail's western 
terminus in Union County, New Mexico, is 
only 1.2 people per square mile. The median 
population density along the trail corridor is 
13.8 people per square mile. 

Besides Kansas City, other metropolitan areas 
within 50 miles of the trail include Columbia, 
Missouri; Topeka and Wichita, Kansas; and 
Albuquerque, New Mexico. The total population 
of the metropolitan areas is more than 2.5 
million people (1980 data). Other cities and 
small towns along the trail route are listed in 
table 9, which also shows their population and 
growth from 1970 to 1980. 



58 



Socioeconomic Environment 



Table 9: 


Population 


of Cities along 


the Santa Fe National Historic 


Trail 






Percentage 






Percentage 




1980 


Change 




1980 


Change 


Cities Population 


1970-80 


Cities 


Population 


1970-80 


Kansas 






Missouri 






Kansas City 


161,087 


-A.2 


Boonville 


6,962 


-7.3 


Olathe 


37,258 


93.0 


Franklin 


196 


-22.2 


Gardner 


2,392 


39.5 


Lexington 


5,075 


-5.7 


Baldwin City 


2,829 


26.2 


Independence 


111,806 


0.2 


Overbrook 


930 


25.3 


Kansas City 


448,159 


-11.6 


Scranton 


664 


22.5 


Raytown 


31,759 


-5.6 


Burlingame 


1,239 


19.2 








Council Grove 


2,381 


-7.4 


Colorado 






McPherson 


11,753 


11.1 


Holly 


969 


-2.4 


Lyons 


4,152 


-8.5 


Granada 


557 


1.1 


Ellinwood 


2,508 


-11.3 


Lamar 


7,713 


-1.1 


Great Bend 


16,608 


-10.2 


Las Animas 


2,818 


-10.5 


Lamed 


4,811 


-0.4 


La Junta 


8,338 


5.0 


Kinsley 


2,074 


-7.5 


Trinidad 


9,663 


-2.4 


Dodge City 


18,001 


7.6 








Ingalls 


274 


6.2 


New Mexico 






Cimarron 


1,491 


6.3 


Wagon Mound 


416 


-34.0 


Ulysses 


4,653 


8.4 


Raton 


8,225 


18.1 


Garden City 


18,256 


12.0 


Cimarron 


888 


-4.2 


Deerfield 


538 


7.6 


Las Vegas 


14,322 


3.4 


Lakin 


1,823 


1.9 


Santa Fe 


48,953 


18.9 


Syracuse 


1,654 


-13.4 


Oklahoma 












Boise City 


1,761 


-11.6 



The Santa Fe Trail crosses 36 counties in the 
states of Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Colo- 
rado, and New Mexico (see table 10). These 
counties have been defined as the study area 
in order to develop a socioeconomic profile. 



Table 10: Counties Crossed by the 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail 



Kansas 


Kansas (cont.) 


Oklahoma 


Wyandotte 


Kearny 


Cimarron 


Johnson 


Gray 




Douglas 


Haskell 


Colorado 


Osage 


Grant 


Baca 


Lyon 


Stevens 


Prowers 


Morris 


Morton 


Bent 


Marion 


Hamilton 


Otero 


McPherson 




Las Animas 


Rice 


Missouri 




Barton 


Howard 


New Mexico 


Pawnee 


Saline 


Union 


Edwards 


Lafayette 


Colfax 


Ford 


Jackson 


Mora 


Finney 




San Miguel 
Santa Fe 



The total population of the study area in 1986 
was estimated to be 1,613,000 people. The 
region has experienced a 5.4 percent growth 
since the 1980 census and a 10.4 percent 
increase since the 1970 census. Growth rates in 
individual counties are quite divergent. For 
example, the population of Santa Fe County, 
New Mexico, increased by over 47 percent 
from 1970 to 1986, and Kearny County, 
Kansas, grew by almost 39 percent during that 
period. Finney and Johnson counties, Kansas, 
grew by approximately 25 percent over the 
same period. Cimarron County, Oklahoma, 
experienced a 12 percent decline during the 
1970s, but it rebounded with a 6.9 percent 
increase from 1980 to 1986. The five Colorado 
counties in the study area have lost nearly 7 
percent of their population between 1970 and 
1986. Only Prowers County has experienced a 
rebound (6.1 percent from 1980 to 1986). The 
study area population will probably grow 
approximately 6 percent between 1986 and 
2000, for a total population of approximately 
1.7 million. 



59 



THE SANTA FE TRAIL ENVIRONMENT 



The racial composition of the study area's 
population is predominantly white. Hispanics 
are a major ethnic population in the Kansas 
City area and in four (Colfax, Mora, San 
Miguel, and Santa Fe) of the five New Mexico 
counties. There are no large American Indian 
populations in counties along the trail corridor 
(the populations of Douglas County in Kansas 
and Santa Fe County in New Mexico are each 
just less than 3 percent American Indian). 



REGIONAL ECONOMY 

Commercial agriculture and ranching are the 
primary economic activities in the study area. 
Tourism, light manufacturing, forestry, oil 
exploration, and institutions of higher learning 
are also important in limited areas. 

Of the counties in the study area, 28 had 
unemployment rates below the national average 
(5.3 percent, April 1988), and 24 had rates of 
4.5 percent or less. The nine counties with rates 
above the national average were in Colorado 
and New Mexico, and four had rates above 10 
percent. The median unemployment rate for all 



counties was 4.3 percent (ranging from a low 
of 2.6 percent in Pawnee County, Kansas, to 
38.2 percent in Mora County, New Mexico). 

The 1980 median household income ranged 
from $7,600 in Mora County, New Mexico, to 
over $25,000 in Johnson County, Kansas. 
Median household incomes in 31 counties were 
lower than the national average. 



RECREATION 

Numerous recreation facilities and lands exist 
along or near the Santa Fe Trail. Public areas 
within 20 miles of the trail corridor that pro- 
vide outdoor recreational opportunities (hiking, 
camping, fishing, hunting, and boating) are 
listed in table 11. These areas also provide for 
the preservation and study of both the natural 
and historical environment. 

In addition, several state wildlife refuges and 
fishing lakes, county and municipal parks, and 
private and commercial recreation facilities are 
within 20 miles of the corridor. 



Table 11: Recreation Facilities 


ALONG 


the Santa Fe National Historic Trail 




National 


U.S. 






Fish and 




State 




Park 


Forest 


Corps 


OF 


Wildlife 


State 


Historic 


State 


Service 


Service 


Engineers 


Service 


Parks 


Sites 


Missouri 


l 


o 










6 


3 


Kansas 


l 


l 


5 




1 


10 


3 


Colorado 


1 


i 


1 













Oklahoma 
















1 





New Mexico 


_3 


_2 


_0 




_L 


_9 


_2 


Total 


6 


4 


6 




2 


26 


s 



60 



VISITOR USE AND EXISTING INTERPRETATION 



The state of Missouri has appropriated funds to 
construct a visitor center at Arrow Rock State 
Historic Site, which will include interpretation 
of the Santa Fe Trail. Missouri has also funded 
the construction of a national frontier trails 
center in Independence. The center, which is 
scheduled to open in 1990, will interpret the 
Santa Fe, California, and Oregon trails and will 
be operated by the city of Independence. The 
center will be built in Independence Old Town, 
a historic district that includes the Harry S 
Truman National Historic Site. Because of the 
variety of historic features in the district and its 
metropolitan center, the trails center will prob- 
ably attract a broad spectrum of visitors. 

Near Larned, Kansas, the Santa Fe Trail Center 
has exhibits on the trail and an archival 
collection for trail researchers (it also maintains 
the records of the Santa Fe Trail Association). 

As previously described, four national park 
system areas along the Santa Fe Trail are 
directly related to the trail story - Fort Larned 
National Historic Site in Kansas, Bent's Old 
Fort National Historic Site in Colorado, and 
Fort Union and Pecos national monuments in 
New Mexico. 

Visitation at these national park system areas in 
1988 varied from just over 18,000 at Fort 
Union to about 49,000 at Pecos National 
Monument. Fort Union and Pecos have realized 
fairly steady growth in visitation over the past 
four years. Fort Larned's counting procedures 
have been revised, resulting in an anomaly 
between past and present figures. Table 12 
shows visitation at the four sites from 1985 
through 1988. 

The Forest Service provides Santa Fe Trail 
interpretive facilities on the Cimarron National 
Grassland, Morton County, Kansas. Interpretive 
signs describing the trail are provided at the 
Cimarron River and Point of Rocks overlooks, 
which offer panoramas of the Cimarron route. 
An interpretive sign is also provided at the 



Table 12: Annual Visitation 

to National Park System Areas 

along the santa fe national historic trail 



1985 



1986 



1987 



1988 



Fort Larned 58,600 


55,100 


43,600 


48,000 


Bent's Old Fort 42,900 


44,800 


41,200 


41,800 


Fort Union 13,400 


13,400 


14,400 


18,100 


Pecos 44,600 


44,800 


45,300 


48,600 



Middle Spring site, an important overnight 
camp and watering hole on the Cimarron route. 
The Forest Service is planning to expand its 
interpretation of the trail, and it is designing a 
comprehensive program, including additional 
interpretive opportunities for Cimarron National 
Grassland and a new interpretive effort for the 
Comanche National Grassland portion of the 
Mountain route. 

Numerous museums, historical societies, and 
other facilities in the five trail states include 
items in their collections or program themes 
that relate to the Santa Fe Trail or generally to 
the way of life on the 19th century American 
frontier. A total of 49 such facilities are along 
the trail or within 20 miles. These facilities 
range from state historical museums (which 
include a broad range of interpretive themes 
and significance) to small homesteads of 
famous individuals (which are often focused on 
one specific topic that may only be of local 
significance). Nearly half of these facilities are 
in Kansas (23), nine each in Missouri and 
Colorado, and eight in New Mexico. There are 
no such museums or other facilities that relate 
to the Santa Fe Trail in the section of 
Oklahoma that is traversed by the trail. 

There is no accurate estimate of present trail 
use. Certainly there are interested people who 
attempt to retrace the trail to the extent 
possible. Some groups have been known to 
traverse portions of the trail or the entire trail, 
but these attempts are infrequent. 



61 



CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 



FEDERAL AGENCIES 

Department of Agriculture 
Forest Service 

Cimarron National Grassland 
Comanche National Grassland 
Kiowa National Grassland 
Santa Fe National Forest 
Soil Conservation Service 
Department of Defense 
Department of the Army 
Corps of Engineers 
Department of the Interior 
Fish and Wildlife Service 
National Park Service 
National Register of Historic Places 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail Advisory 
Council 
Department of Transportation 
Federal Highway Administration 



STATE AGENCIES 

Colorado 

Climate Center 
Colorado State University 

Department of Atmospheric Science 
Department of Local Affairs 
Department of Natural Resources 

Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation 

Division of Wildlife 

Natural Areas Program 
Department of Transportation 
Historical Society 
Tourism Board 

Kansas 

Department of Commerce 
Department of Transportation 
Department of Wildlife and Parks 



Kansas (cont.) 
Geological Survey 
Kansas State University 

Cooperative Extension Service 
Kansas State Historical Society 
Natural Heritage Program 
University of Kansas 

Biological Survey 

Missouri 

Department of Natural Resources 
Department of Economic Development 

Division of Tourism 
Highway and Transportation Department 
State Historic Preservation Office 
State Historical Society of Missouri 
University of Missouri at Columbia 

Department of Atmospheric Science 

New Mexico 

Department of Agriculture 

Department of Energy, Minerals, and 

Natural Resources 
Department of Game and Fish 
Economic Development and Tourism 

Department 
Highway and Transportation Department 
Office of Cultural Affairs 

Oklahoma 

Arts Council 
Biological Survey 
Department of Commerce 
Department of Transportation 
Department of Wildlife Conservation 
Land Office 

Natural Heritage Program 
Oklahoma State University 

Department of Agronomy 
State Historical Society 



62 



THE COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT 

AND USE PLAN 




In descending to the Rio Colorado, we encountered a party of 
custom-house agents, who, accompanied by a military escort, had come 
out to guard the caravan to the Capital. 

Josiah Gregg 



APPENDIX A: LEGISLATION 



NATIONAL TRAILS SYSTEM ACT 

Public Law 90-543 

(16 U.S.C. 1241 et seq.) 

as amended 

through P.L. 100-559, October 29, 1988 



AN ACT 

To establish a national trails system, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled , 

SHORT TITLE 

SECTION 1. This Act may be cited as the "National Trails System Act". 

STATEMENT OF POLICY 

SEC. 2. (a) In order to provide for the ever-increasing outdoor recreation 
needs of an expanding population and in order to promote the preservation of, 
public access to, travel within, and enjoyment and appreciation of the open-air, 
outdoor areas and historic resources of the Nation, trails should be established 
(i) primarily, near the urban areas of the Nation, and (ii) secondarily, within 
scenic areas and along historic travel routes of the Nation which are often more 
remotely located. 

(b) The purpose of this Act is to provide the means for attaining these 
objectives by instituting a national system of recreation, scenic and historic 
trails, by designating the Appalachian Trail and the Pacific Crest Trail as the 
initial components of that system, and by prescribing the methods by which, and 
standards according to which, additional components may be added to the system. 

(c) The Congress recognizes the valuable contributions that volunteers and 
private, nonprofit trail groups have made to the development and maintenance of 
the Nation's trails. In recognition of these contributions, it is further the 
purpose of this Act to encourage and assist volunteer citizen involvement in the 
planning, development, maintenance, and management, where appropriate, of 
trails. 

NATIONAL TRAILS SYSTEM 

SEC. 3. (a) The national system of trails shall be composed of the 
following: 

(1) National recreation trails, established as provided in section 4 of 
this Act, which will provide a variety of outdoor recreation uses in or 
reasonably accessible to urban areas. 



Note: Refer to section 5. (a) (15) for specific language designating the Santa 
Fe National Historic Trail. 

65 



APPENDIXES 



(2) National scenic trails, established as provided in section 5 of this 
Act, which will be extended trails so located as to provide for maximum outdoor 
recreation potential and for the conservation and enjoyment of the nationally 
significant scenic, historic, natural, or cultural qualities of the areas 
through which such trails may pass. National scenic trails may be located so as 
to represent desert, marsh, grassland, mountain, canyon, river, forest, and 
other areas, as well as landforms which exhibit significant characteristics of 
the physiographic regions of the Nation. 

(3) National historic trails, established as provided in section 5 of this 
Act, which will be extended trails which follow as closely as possible and 
practicable the original trails or routes of travel of national historic 
significance. Designation of such trails or routes shall be continuous, but the 
established or developed trail, and the acquisition thereof, need not be 
continuous onsite. National historic trails shall have as their purpose the 
identification and protection of the historic route and its historic remnants 
and artifacts for public use and enjoyment. Only those selected land and water 
based components of a historic trail which are on federally owned lands and 
which meet the national historic trail criteria established in this Act are 
included as Federal protection components of a national histo.ric trail. The 
appropriate Secretary may certify other lands as protected segments of an 
historic trail upon application from State or local governmental agencies or 
private interests involved if such segments meet the national historic trail 
criteria established in this Act and such criteria supplementary thereto as the 
appropriate Secretary may prescribe, and are administered by such agencies or 
interests without expense to the United States. 

(4) Connecting or side trails, established as provided in section 6 of this 
Act, which will provide additional points of public access to national 
recreation, national scenic or national historic trails or which will provide 
connections between such trails. 

The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation 
with appropriate governmental agencies and public and private organizations, 
shall establish a uniform marker for the national trails system. 

(b) For purposes of this section, the term 'extended trails' means trails 
or trail segments which total at least one hundred miles in length, except that 
historic trails of less than one hundred miles may be designated as extended 
trails. While it is desirable that extended trails be continuous, studies of 
such trails may conclude that it is feasible to propose one or more trail 
segments which, in the aggregate, constitute at least one hundred miles in 
length. 

(c) On October 1, 1982, and at the beginning of each odd numbered fiscal 
year thereafter, the Secretary of the Interior shall submit to the Speaker of 
the United States House of Representatives and to the President of the United 
States Senate, an initial and revised (respectively) National Trails System 
plan. Such comprehensive plan shall indicate the scope and extent of a com- 
pleted nationwide system of trails, to include (1) desirable nationally signi- 
ficant scenic and historic components which are considered necessary to complete 
a comprehensive national system, and (2) other trails which would balance out a 
complete and comprehensive nationwide system of trails. Such plan, and the per- 
iodic revisions thereto, shall be prepared in full consultation with the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, the Governors of the various States, and the trails commun- 
ity. 



66 



Appendix A: Legislation 



NATIONAL RECREATION TRAILS 

SEC. 4. (a) The Secretary of the Interior, or the Secretary of Agriculture 
where lands administered by him are involved, may establish and designate na- 
tional recreation trails, with the consent of the Federal agency, State, or 
political subdivision having jurisdication over the lands involved, upon finding 
that — 

(i) such trails are reasonably accessible to urban areas, and, or 

(ii) such trails meet the criteria established in this Act and such 
supplementary criteria as he may prescribe. 

(b) As provided in this section, trails within park, forest, and other re- 
creation areas administered by the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of 
Agriculture or in other federally administered areas may be established and de- 
signated as "National Recreation Trails'" by the appropriate Secretary and, when 
no Federal land acquisition is involved — 

(i) trails in or reasonably accessible to urban areas may be desig- 
nated as "National Recreation Trails" by the appropriate Secretary with the 
consent of the States, their political subdivisions, or other appropriate 
administering agencies; 

(ii) trails within park, forest, and other recreation areas owned or 
administered by States may be designated as "National Recreation Trails" by 
the appropriate Secretary with the consent of the State; and 

(iii) trails on privately owned lands may be designated 'National Recre- 
ation Trails' by the appropriate Secretary with the written consent of the 
owner of the property involved. 

NATIONAL SCENIC AND NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS 

SEC. 5. (a) National scenic and national historic trails shall be author- 
ized and designated only by Act of Congress. There are hereby established the 
following National Scenic and National Historic Trails: 

* * * 

(15) The Santa Fe National Historic Trail, a trail of approximately 950 
miles from a point near Old Franklin, Missouri, through Kansas, Oklahoma, and 
Colorado to Santa Fe , New Mexico, as generally depicted on a map entitled "The 
Santa Fe Trail" contained in the Final Report of the Secretary of the Interior 
pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, dated July 1976. The map shall be 
on file and available for public inspection in the office of the Director of the 
National Park Service, Washington, District of Columbia. The trail shall be 
administered by the Secretary of the Interior. No lands or interests therein 
outside the exterior boundaries of any federally administered area may be 
acquired by the Federal Government for the Santa Fe Trail except with the 
consent of the owner thereof. Before acquiring any easement or entering into 
any cooperative agreement with a private landowner with respect to the trail, 
the Secretary shall notify the landowner of the potential liability, if any, for 
injury to the public resulting from physical conditions which may be on the 
landowner's land. The United States shall not be held liable by reason of such 
notice or failure to provide such notice to the landowner. So that significant 
route segments and sites recognized as associated with the Santa Fe Trail may be 
distinguished by suitable markers, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized 
to accept the donation of suitable markers for placement at appropriate 
locations . 

67 



APPI-NDKHS 



(b) The Secretary of the Interior, through the agency most likely to 
administer such trail, and the Secretary of Agriculture where lands administered 
by him are involved, shall make such additional studies as are herein or may 
hereafter be authorized by the Congress for the purpose of determining the 
feasibility and desirability of designating other trails as national scenic or 
national historic trails. Such studies shall be made in consultation with the 
heads of other Federal agencies administering lands through which such 
additional proposed trails would pass and in cooperation with interested 
interstate, State, and local governmental agencies, public and private 
organizations, and landowners and land users concerned. The feasibility of 
designating a trail shall be determined on the basis of an evaluation of whether 
or not it is physically possible to develop a trail along a route being studied, 
and whether the development of a trail would be financially feasible. The 
studies listed in subsection (c) of this section shall be completed and 
submitted to the Congress, with recommendations as to the suitability of trail 
designation, not later than three complete fiscal years from the date of 
enactment of their addition to this subsection, or from the date of enactment of 
this sentence, whichever is later. Such studies, when submitted, shall be 
printed as a House or Senate document, and shall include, but not be limited 
to: 

(1) the proposed route of such trail (including maps and illustrations); 

(2) the areas adjacent to such trails, to be utilized for scenic, historic, 
natural, cultural, or developmental, purposes; 

(3) the characteristics which, in the judgment of the appropriate 
Secretary, make the proposed trail worthy of designation as a national scenic or 
national historic trail; and in the case of national historic trails the report 
shall include the recommendation of the Secretary of the Interior's National 
Park System Advisory Board as to the national historic significance based on the 
criteria developed under the Historic Sites Act of 1935 (40 Stat. 666; 16 U.S.C. 
461); 

(4) the current status of land ownership and current and potential use 
along the designated route; 



any; 



of; 



(5) the estimated cost of acquisition of lands or interest in lands, if 

(6) the plans for . developing and maintaining the trail and the cost there- 



(7) the proposed Federal administering agency (which, in the case of a 
national scenic trail wholly or substantially within a national forest, shall be 
the Department of Agriculture); 

(8) the extent to which a State or its political subdivisions and public 
and private organizations might reasonably be expected to participate in acquir- 
ing the necessary lands and in the administration thereof; 

(9) the relative uses of the lands involved, including: the number of 
anticipated visitor-days for the entire length of, as well as for segments of, 
such trail; the number of months which such trail, or segments thereof, will be 
open for recreation purposes; the economic and social benefits which might 
accrue from alternate land uses; and the estimated man-years of civilian employ- 
ment and expenditures expected for the purposes of maintenance, supervision, and 
regulation of such trail; 

68 



Appendix A: Legislation 



(10) the anticipated impact of public outdoor recreation use on the preser- 
vation of a proposed national historic trail and its related historic and arche- 
ological features and settings, including the measures proposed to ensure evalu- 
ation and preservation of the values that contribute to their national historic 
significance; and 

(11) To qualify for designation as a national historic trail, a trail must 
meet all three of the following criteria: 

(A) It must be a trail or route established by historic use and 
must be historically significant as a result of that use. The route need 
not currently exist as a discernible trail to qualify, but its location 
must be sufficiently known to permit evaluation of public recreation and 
historical interest potential. A designated trail should generally 
accurately follow the historic route, but may deviate somewhat on occasion 
of necessity to avoid difficult routing through subsequent development, or 
to provide some route variations offering a more pleasurable recreational 
experience. Such deviations shall be so noted on site. Trail segments no 
longer possible to travel by trail due to subsequent development as 
motorized transportation routes may be designated and marked onsite as 
segments which link to the historic trail. 

(B) It must be of national significance with respect to any of 
several broad facets of American history, such as trade and commerce, 
exploration, migration and settlement, or military campaigns. To qualify 
as nationally significant, historic use of the trail must have had a far 
reaching effect on broad patterns of American culture. Trails significant 
in the history of native Americans may be included. 

(C) It must have significant potential for public recreational use 
or historical interest based on historic interpretation and appreciation. 
The potential for such use is generally greater along roadless segments 
developed as historic trails and at historic sites associated with the 
trail. The presence of recreation potential not related to historic 
appreciation is not sufficient justification for designation under this 
category. 

(c) The following routes shall be studied in accordance with the objectives 
outlined in subsection (b) of this section. 

* * * 

(d) The Secretary charged with the administration of each respective trail 
shall, within one year of the date of the addition of any national scenic or 
national historic trail to the system, and within sixty days of the enactment of 
this sentence for the Appalachian and Pacific Crest National Scenic Trails, 
establish an advisory council for each such trail, each of which councils shall 
expire ten years from the date of its establishment, except that the Advisory 
Council established for the Iditarod Historic Trail shall expire twenty years 
from the date of its establishment. If the appropriate Secretary is unable to 
establish such an advisory council because of the lack of adequate public 
interest, the Secretary shall so advise the appropriate committees of the 
Congress. The appropriate Secretary shall consult with such council from time 
to time with respect to matters relating to the trail, including the selection 
of rights-of-way, standards for the erection and maintenance of markers along 
the trail, and the administration of the trail. The members of each advisory 
council, which shall not exceed thirty-five in number, shall serve for a tern of 
two years and without compensation as such, but the Secretary may pay, upon 
vouchers signed by the chairman of the council, the expenses reasonably Incurred 

69 



APPIiNDDCES 



by Che council and its members in carrying out their responsibilities under this 
section. Members of each council shall be appointed by the appropriate 
Secretary as follows: 

(1) the head of each Federal department or independent agency administering 
lands through which the trail route passes, or his designee; 

(2) a member appointed to represent each State through which the trail 
passes, and such appointments shall be made from recommendations of the Gover- 
nors of such States; 

(3) one or more members appointed to represent private organizations, 
including corporate and individual landowners and land users, which in the 
opinion of the Secretary, have an established and recognized interest in the 
trail, and such appointments shall be made from recommendations of the heads of 
such organizations: Provided , That the Appalachian Trail Conference shall be 
represented by a sufficient number of persons to represent the various sections 
of the country through which the Appalachian Trail passes; and 

(4) the Secretary shall designate one member to be chairman and shall fill 
vacancies in the same manner as the original appointment. 

(e) Within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of legisla- 
tion designating a national scenic trail, except for the Continental Divide 
National Scenic Trail and the North Country National Scenic Trail as part of the 
system, and within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of this 
subsection for the Pacific Crest and Appalachian Trails, the responsible Secre- 
tary shall, after full consultation with affected Federal land managing agen- 
cies, the Governors of the affected States, the relevant advisory council estab- 
lished pursuant to section 5(d), and the Appalachian Trail Conference in the 
case of the Appalachian Trail, submit to the Committee on Interior and Insular 
Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural 
Resources of the Senate, a comprehensive plan for the acquisition, management, 
development, and use of the trail, including but not limited to, the following 
items: 

(1) specific objectives and practices to be observed in the management of 
the trail, including the identification of all significant natural, historical, 
and cultural resources to be preserved (along with high potential historic sites 
and high potential route segments in the case of national historic trails), 
details of anticipated cooperative agreements to be consummated with other 
entities, and an identified carrying capacity of the trail and a plan for its 
Implementation; 

(2) an acquisition or protection plan, by fiscal year, for all lands to be 
acquired by fee titlo or lesser interest, along with detailed explanation of 
anticipated necessary cooperative agreements for any lands not to be acquired; 
and 

(3) general and site-specific development plans including anticipated 
costs. 

(f) Within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of legislation 
designating a national historic trail or the Continental Divide National Scenic 
Trail or the North Country National Scenic Trail as part of the system, the 
responsible Secretary shall, after full consultation with affected Federal land 
managing agencies, the Governors of the affected States, and the relevant 
Advisory Council established pursuant to section 5(d) of this Act, submit to the 
Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the House of Representatives and 

70 



Appendix A: Legislation 



the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate, a comprehensive 
plan for the management, and use of the trail, iiiduding but not limited to, the 
following items: 

(1) specific objectives and practices to be observed in the management of 
the trail, including the identification of all significant natural, historical, 
and cultural resources to be preserved, details of any anticipated cooperative 
agreements to be consummated with State and local government agencies or private 
interests, and for national scenic or national historic trails an identified 
carrying capacity of the trail and a plan for its implementation; 

(2) the process to be followed by the appropriate Secretary to implement 
the marking requirements established in section 7(c) of this Act; 

(3) a protection plan for any high potential historic sites or high poten- 
tial route segments; and 

(4) general and site-specific development plans, including anticipated 
costs. 

CONNECTING AND SIDE TRAILS 

SEC. 6. Connecting or side trails within park, forest, and other recreation 
areas administered by the Secretary of the Interior or Secretary of Agriculture 
may be established, designated, and marked by the appropriate Secretary as com- 
ponents of a national recreation, national scenic or national historic trail. 
When no Federal land acquisition is involved, connecting or side trails may be 
located across lands administered by interstate, State, or local governmental 
agencies with their consent, or, where the appropriate Secretary deems necessary 
or desirable, on privately owned lands with the consent of the landowners. 
Applications for approval and designation of connecting and side trails on 
non-Federal lands shall be submitted to the appropriate Secretary. 

ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT 

SEC. 7. (a)(1)(A) The Secretary charged with the overall administration of 
a trail pursuant to section 5(a) shall, in administering and managing the trail, 
consult with the heads of all other affected State and Federal agencies. 
Nothing contained in this Act shall be deemed to transfer among Federal agencies 
any management responsibilities established under any other law for federally 
administered lands which are components of the National Trails System. Any 
transfer of management responsibilities may be carried out between the Secretary 
of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture only as provided under subpara- 
graph (B). 

(B) The Secretary charged with the overall administration of any trail pur- 
suant to section 5(a) may transfer management of any specified trail segment of 
such trail to the other appropriate Secretary pursuant to a joint memorandum of 
agreement containing such terms and conditions as the Secretaries consider most 
appropriate to accomplish the purposes of this Act. During any period in which 
management responsibilities for any trail segment are transferred under such an 
agreement, the management of any such segment shall be subject to the laws, 
rules, and regulations of the Secretary provided with the management authority 
under the agreement except to such extent as the agreement may otherwise ex- 
pressly provide. 



71 



APPENDIXES 

(2) Pursuant to section 5(a), the appropriate Secretary shall select the 
rights-of-way for national scenic and national historic trails and shall publish 
notice thereof of the availability of appropriate maps or descriptions in the 
Federal Register; Provided , That in selecting the rights-of-way full considera- 
tion shall be given to minimizing the adverse effects upon the adjacent land- 
owner or user and his operation. Development and management of each segment of 
the National Trails System shall be designed to harmonize with and complement 
any established multiple-use plans for the specific area in order to insure con- 
tinued maximum benefits from the land. The location and width of such rights- 
of-way across Federal lands under the jurisdiction of another Federal agency 
shall be by agreement between the head of that agency and the appropriate Secre- 
tary. In selecting rights-of-way for trail purposes, the Secretary shall obtain 
the advice and assistance of the States, local governments, private organiza- 
tions, and landowners and land users concerned. 

(b) After publication of notice of the availability of appropriate maps or 
descriptions in the Federal Register, the Secretary charged with the administra- 
tion of a national scenic or national historic trail may relocate segments of a 
national scenic or national historic trail right-of-way, with the concurrence of 
the head of the Federal agency having jurisdiction over the lands involved, upon 
a determination that: (i) Such a relocation is necessary to preserve the pur- 
poses for which the trail was established, or (ii) the relocation is necessary 
to promote a sound land management program in accordance with established 
multiple-use principles: Provided , That a substantial relocation of the rights- 
of-way for such trail shall be by Act of Congress. 

(c) National scenic or national historic trails may contain campsites, 
shelters, and related-public-use facilities. Other uses along the trail, which 
will not substantially interfere with the nature and purposes of the trail, may 
be permitted by the Secretary charged with the administration of the trail. 
Reasonable efforts shall be made to provide sufficient access opportunities to 
such trails and, to the extent practicable, efforts be made to avoid activities 
incompatible with the purposes for which such trails were established. The use 
of motorized vehicles by the general public along any national scenic trail 
shall be prohibited and nothing in this Act shall be construed as authorizing 
the use of motorized vehicles within the natural and historical areas of the 
national park system, the national wildlife refuge system, the national 
wilderness preservation system where they are presently prohibited or on other 
Federal lands where trails are designated as being closed to such use by the 
appropriate Secretary: Provided, That the Secretary charged with the 
administration of such trail shall establish regulations which shall authorize 
the use of motorized vehicles when, in his judgment, such vehicles are necessary 
to meet emergencies or to enable adjacent landowners or land users to have 
reasonable access to their lands or timber rights: Provided further , That 
private lands included in the national recreation, national scenic, or national 
historic trails by cooperative agreement of a landowner shall not preclude such 
owner from using motorized vehicles on or across such trails or adjacent lands 
from time to time in accordance with regulations to be established by the 
appropriate Secretary. Where a national historic trail follows existing public 
roads, developed rights-of-way or waterways, and similar features of man's 
nonhistorically related development, approximating the original location of a 
historic route, such segments may be marked to facilitate retracement of the 
historic route, and where a national historic trail parallels an existing public 
road, such road may be marked to commemorate the historic route. Other uses 
along the historic trails and the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail, 
which will not substantially interfere with the nature and purposes of the 
trail, and which, at the time of designation, are allowed by administrative 
regulations, including the use of motorized vehicles, shall be permitted by the 

72 



Appendix A: Legislation 



Secretary charged with administration of the trail. The Secretary of the 
Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with appropriate 
governmental agencies and public and private organizations, shall establish a 
uniform marker, including thereon an appropriate and distinctive symbol for each 
national recreation, national scenic, and national historic trail. Where the 
trails cross lands administered by Federal agencies such markers shall be 
erected at appropriate points along the trails and maintained by the Federal 
agency administering the trail in accordance with standards established by the 
appropriate Secretary and where the trails cross non-Federal lands, in 
accordance with written cooperative agreements, the appropriate Secretary shall 
provide such uniform markers to cooperating agencies and shall require such 
agencies to erect and maintain them in accordance with the standards 
established. The appropriate Secretary may also provide for trail 
interpretation sites, which shall be located at historic sites along the route 
of any national scenic or national historic trail, in order to present 
information to the public about the trail, at the lowest possible cost, with 
emphasis on the portion of the trail passing through the State in which the site 
is located. Wherever possible, the sites shall be maintained by a State agency 
under a cooperative agreement between the appropriate Secretary and the State 
agency. 

(d) Within the exterior boundaries of areas under their administration that 
are included in the right-of-way selected for a national recreation, national 
scenic, or national historic trail, the heads of Federal agencies may use lands 
for trail purposes and may acquire lands or interests in lands by written coop- 
erative agreement, donation, purchase with donated or appropriated funds or 
exchange. 

(e) Where the lands included in a national scenic or national historic 
trail right-of-way are outside of the exterior boundaries of federally adminis- 
tered areas, the Secretary charged with the administration of such trail shall 
encourage the States or local governments involved (1) to enter into written 
cooperative agreements with landowners, private organizations, and individuals 
to provide the necessary trail right-of-way, or (2) to acquire such lands or 
interests therein to be utilized as segments of the national scenic or national 
historic trail: Provided , That if the State or local governments fail to enter 
into such written cooperative agreements or to acquire such lands or interests 
therein after notice of the selection of the right-of-way is published, the 
appropriate Secretary, may (i) enter into such agreements with landowners, 
States, local governments, private organizations, and individuals for the use of 
lands for trail purposes, or (ii) acquire private lands or interests therein by 
donation, purchase with donated or appropriated funds or exchange in accordance 
with the provisions of subsection (f) of this section: Provided further , That 
the appropriate Secretary may acquire lands or interests therein from local 
governments or governmental corporations with the consent of such entities. The 
lands involved in such rights-of-way should be acquired in fee, if other methods 
of public control are not sufficient to assure their use for the purpose for 
which they are acquired: Provided , That if the Secretary charged with the 
administration of such trail permanently relocates the right-of-way and disposes 
of all title or interest in the land, the original owner, or his heirs or 
assigns, shall be offered, by notice given at the former owner's last known 
address, the right of first refusal at the fair market price. 

(f)(1) The Secretary of the Interior, in the exercise of his exchange 
authority, may accept title to any non-Federal property within the right-of-way 
and in exchange therefor he may convey to the grantor of such property any 
federally owned property under his jurisdiction which is located in the State 
wherein such property is located and which he classifies as suitable for 
exchange or other disposal. The values of the properties so exchanged either 

73 



APPENDIXES 



shall be approximately equal, or if they are not approximately equal the values 
shall be equalized by the payment of cash to the grantor or to the Secretary as 
the circumstances require. The Secretary of Agriculture, in the exercise of his 
exchange authority, may utilize authorities and procedures available to him in 
connection with exchanges of national forest lands. 

(2) In acquiring lands or interests therein for a National Scenic or 
Historic Trail, the appropriate Secretary may, with consent of a landowner, 
acquire whole tracts notwithstanding that parts of such tracts may lie outside 
the area of trail acquisition. In furtherance of the purposes of this act, 
lands so acquired outside the area of trail acquisition may be exchanged for any 
non-Federal lands or interests therein within the trail right-of-way, or 
disposed of in accordance with such procedures or regulations as the appropriate 
Secretary shall prescribe, including: (i) provisions for conveyance of such 
acquired lands or interests therein at not less than fair market value to the 
highest bidder, and (ii) provisions for allowing the last owners of record a 
right to purchase said acquired lands or interests therein upon payment or 
agreement to pay an amount equal to the highest bid price. For lands designated 
for exchange or disposal, the appropriate Secretary may convey these lands with 
any reservations or covenants deemed desirable to further the purposes of this 
Act. The proceeds from any disposal shall be credited to the appropriation 
bearing the costs of land acquisition for the affected trail. 

(g) The appropriate Secretary may utilize condemnation proceedings without 
the consent of the owner to acquire private lands or interests, therein pursuant 
to this section only in cases where, in his judgment, all reasonable efforts to 
acquire such lands or interest therein by negotiation have failed, and in such 
cases he shall acquire only such title as, in his judgment, is reasonably neces- 
sary to provide passage across such lands: Provided , That condemnation proceed- 
ings may not be utilized to acquire fee title or lesser interests to more than 
an average of one hundred and twenty-five acres per mile. Money appropriated 
for Federal purposes from the land and water conservation fund shall, without 
prejudice to appropriations from other sources, be available to Federal depart- 
ments for the acquisition of lands or interests in lands for the purposes of 
this Act. For national historic trails, direct Federal acquisition for trail 
purposes shall be limited to those areas indicated by the study report or by the 
comprehensive plan as high potential route segments or high potential historic 
sites. Except for designated protected components of the trail, no land or site 
located along a designated national historic trail or along the Continental 
Divide National Scenic Trail shall be subject to the provisions of section 4(f) 
of the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1653(f)) unless such land or 
site is deemed to be of historical significance under appropriate historical 
site criteria such as those for the National Register of Historic Places. 



(h)(1) The Secretary charged with the administration of a national 
recreation, national scenic, or national historic trail shall provide for the 
development and maintenance of such trails within federally administered areas 
and shall cooperate with and encourage the States to operate, develop, and 
maintain portions of such trails which are located outside the boundaries of 
federally administered areas. When deemed to be in the public interest, such 
Secretary may enter written cooperative agreements with the States or their 
political subdivisions, landowners, private organizations, or individuals to 
operate, develop, and maintain any portion of such a trail either within or 
outside a federally administered area. Such agreements may include provisions 
for limited financial assistance to encourage participation in the acquisition, 
protection, operation, development, or maintenance of such trails, provisions 

* The provisions of section 7(h) have been superseded by those of section 5(a) (15) of 
this act. 

74 



Appendix A: Legislation 



providing volunteer in Che park or volunteer in the forest status (in accordance 
with the Volunteers in the Parks Act of 1969 and Che Volunteers in the Forests 
Act of 1972) to individuals, private organizations, or landowners participating 
in such activities, or provisions of both types. The appropriate Secretary 
shall also initiate consultations with affected States and their political 
subdivisions to encourage — 

(A) the development and implementation by such entities of appropri- 
ate measures to protect private landowners from trespass resulting from 
trail use and from unreasonable personal liability and property damage 
caused by trail use, and 

(B) the development and implementation by such entities of pro- 
visions for land practices, compatible with the purposes of this Act, 

for property within or adjacent to trail rights-of-way. After consulting with 
States and their political subdivisions under the preceding sentence, the Secre- 
tary may provide assistance to such entities under appropriate cooperative 
agreements in the manner provided by this subsection. 

(2) Whenever the Secretary of the Interior makes any conveyance of land 
under any of the public land laws, he may reserve a right-of-way for trails to 
the extent he deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. 

(i) The appropriate Secretary, with the concurrence of the heads of any 
other Federal agencies administering lands through which a national recreation, 
national scenic, or national historic trail passes, and after consultation with 
the States, local governments, and organizations concerned, may issue regula- 
tions, which may be revised from time to time, governing the use, protection, 
management, development, and administration of trails of the national trails 
system. In order to maintain good conduct on and along the trails located 
within federally administered areas and to provide for the proper government and 
protection of such trails, the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of 
Agriculture shall prescribe and publish such uniform regulations as they deem 
necessary and any person who violates such regulations shall be guilty of a mis- 
demeanor, and may be punished by a fine of not more $500, or by imprisonment not 
exceeding six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment. The Secretary 
responsible for the administration of any segment of any component of the 
National Trails System (as determined in a manner consistent with subsection 
(a)(1) of this section) may also utilize authorities related to units of the 
national park system or the national forest system, as the case may be, in 
carrying out his administrative responsibilities for such component. 

( j ) Potential trail uses allowed on designated components of the national 
trails system may include, but are not limited to, the following: bicycling, 
cross-country skiing, day hiking, equestrian activities, jogging or similar fit- 
ness activities, trail biking, overnight and long-distance backpacking, snow- 
mobiling, and surface water and underwater activities. Vehicles which may be 
permitted on certain trails may include, but need not be limited to, motor- 
cycles, bicycles, four-wheel drive or all-terrain off-road vehicles. In addi- 
tion, trail access for handicapped individuals may be provided. The provisions 
of this subsection shall not supersede any other provisions of this Act or other 
Federal laws, or any State or local laws. 



75 



APPENDIXES 



(k) For the conservation purpose of preserving or enhancing the recreation- 
al, scenic, natural, or historical values of components of the national trails 
system, and environs thereof as determined by the appropriate Secretary, land- 
owners are authorized to donate or otherwise convey qualified real property 
interests to qualified organizations consistent with section 170(h)(3) of the 
Internal Revenue Code of 1954, including, but not limited to, right-of-way, open 
space, scenic, or conservation easements, without regard to any limitation on 
the nature of the estate or interest otherwise transferable within the juris- 
diction where the land is located. The conveyance of any such interest in land 
in accordance with this subsection shall be deemed to further a Federal 
conservation policy and yield a significant public benefit for purposes of 
section 6 of Public Law 96-541. 

STATE AND METROPOLITAN AREA TRAILS 

SEC. 8. (a) The Secretary of the Interior is directed to encourage States 
to consider, in their comprehensive statewide outdoor recreation plans and pro- 
posals for financial assistance for State and local projects submitted pursuant 
to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act, needs and opportunities for estab- 
lishing park, forest, and other recreation and historic trails on lands owned or 
administered by States, and recreation and historic trails on lands in or near 
urban areas. The Secretary is also directed to encourage States to consider, in 
their comprehensive statewide historic preservation plans and proposals for 
financial assistance for State, local, and private projects submitted pursuant 
to the Act of October 15, 1966 (80 Stat. 915), as amended, needs and opportuni- 
ties for establishing historic trails. He is further directed in accordance 
with the authority contained in the Act of May 28, 1963 (77 Stat. 49), to 
encourage States, political subdivisions, and private interests, including non- 
profit organizations, to establish such trails. 

(b) The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is directed, in 
administering the program of comprehensive urban planning and assistance under 
section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, to encourage the planning of recreation 
trails in connection with the recreation and transportation planning for 
metropolitan and other urban areas. He is further directed, in administering 
the urban openspace program under title VII of the Housing Act of 1961, to 
encourage such recreation trails. 

(c) The Secretary of Agriculture is directed, in accordance with authority 
vested in him, to encourage States and local agencies and private interests to 
establish such trails. 

(d) The Secretary of Transportation, the Chairman of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, and the Secretary of the Interior, in administering the 
Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory, Reform Act of 1976, shall encourage 
State and local agencies and private interests to establish appropriate trails 
using the provisions of such programs. Consistent with the purposes of that 
Act, and In furtherance of the national policy to preserve established railroad 
rights-of-way for future reactivation of rail service, to protect rail trans- 
portation corridors, and to encourage energy efficient transportation use,- in 
the case of interim use of any established railroad rights-of-way pursuant to 
donation, transfer, lease, sale, or otherwise in a manner consistent with the 
National Trails System Act, if such interim use is subject to restoration or 
reconstruction for railroad purposes, such interim use shall not be treated, for 
purposes of any law or rule of law, as an abandonment of the use of such 
rights-of-way for railroad purposes. If a State, political subdivision, or 



76 



Appendix A: Legislation 



qualified private organization is prepared to assume full responsibility for 
management of such rights-of-way and for any legal liability arising out of such 
transfer or use, and for the payment of any and all taxes that may be levied or 
assessed against such rights-of-way, then the Commission shall impose such terms 
and conditions as a requirement of any transfer or conveyance for interim use in 
a manner consistent with this Act, and shall not permit abandonment or 
discontinuance inconsistent or disruptive of such use. 

(e) Such trails may be designated and suitably marked as parts of the 
nationwide system of trails by the States, their political subdivisions, or 
other appropriate administering agencies with the approval of the Secretary of 
the Interior. 

RIGHTS-OF-WAY AND OTHER PROPERTIES 

SEC. 9. (a) The Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture 
as the case may be, may grant easements and rights-of-way upon, over, under, 
across, or along any component of the national trails system in accordance with 
the laws applicable to the national park system and the national forest system, 
respectively: Provided , That any conditions contain in such easements and 
rights-of-way shall be related to the policy and purposes of this Act. 

(b) The Department of Defense, the Department of Transportation, the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, the 
Federal Power Commission, and other Federal agencies having jurisdiction or 
control over or information concerning the use, abandonment, or disposition of 
roadways, utility rights-of-way, or other properties which may be suitable for 
the purpose of improving or expanding the national trails system shall cooperate 
with the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture in order to 
assure, to the extent practicable, that any such properties having values 
suitable for trail purposes may be made available for such use. 

(c) Commencing upon the date of enactment of this subsection, any and all 
right, title, interest, and estate of the United States in all rights-of-way of 
the type described in the Act of March 8, 1922 (43 U.S.C. 912), shall remain in 
the United States upon the abandonment or forfeiture of such rights-of-way, or 
portions thereof, except to the extent that any such right-of-way, or portion 
thereof, is embraced within a public highway no later than one year after a 
determination of abandonment or forfeiture, as provided under such Act. 

(d)(1) All rights-of-way, or portions thereof, retained by the United 
States pursuant to subsection (c) which are located within the boundaries of a 
conservation system unit or a National Forest shall be added to and incorporated 
within such unit or National Forest and managed in accordance with applicable 
provisions of law, including this Act. 

(2) All such retained rights-of-way, or portions thereof, which are located 
outside the boundaries of a conservation system unit or a National Forest but 
adjacent to or contiguous with any portion of the public lands shall be managed 
pursuant to the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 and other 
applicable law, including this section. 

(3) All such retained rights-of-way, or portions thereof, which are located 
outside the boundaries of a conservation system unit or National Forest which 
the Secretary of the Interior determines suitable for use as a public 
recreational trail or other recreational purposes shall be managed by the 
Secretary for such uses, as well as for such other uses as the Secretary 
determines to be appropriate pursuant to applicable laws, as long as such uses 
do not preclude trail use. 

77 



APPENDIXES 



(e)(1) The Secretary of the Interior is authorized where appropriate to 
release and quitclaim to a unit of government or to another entity meeting the 
requirements of this subsection any and all right, title, and interest in the 
surface estate of any portion of any right-of-way to the extent any such right, 
title, and interest was retained by the United States pursuant to subsection 
(c), if such portion is not located within the boundaries of any conservation 
system unit or National Forest. Such release and quitclaim shall be made only 
in response to an application therefor by a unit of State or local government or 
another entity which the Secretary of the Interior determines to be legally and 
financially qualified to manage the relevant portion for public recreational 
purposes. Upon receipt of such an application, the Secretary shall publish a 
notice concerning such application in a newspaper of general circulation in the 
area where the relevant portion is located. Such release and quitclaim shall be 
on the following conditions: 

(A) If such unit or entity attempts to sell, convey, or otherwise 
transfer such right, title, or interest or attempts to permit the use of any 
part of such portion for any purpose incompatible with its use for public 
recreation, then any and all right, title, and interest released and quitclaimed 
by the Secretary pursuant to this subsection shall revert to the United States. 

(B) Such unit or entity shall assume full responsibility and hold 
the United States harmless for any legal liability which might arise with 
respect to the transfer, possession, use, release, or quitclaim of such 
right-of-way. 

(C) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the United States 
shall be under no duty to inspect such portion prior to such release and 
quitclaim, and shall incur no legal liability with respect to any hazard or any 
unsafe condition existing on such portion at the time of such release and 
quitclaim. 

(2) The Secretary is authorized to sell any portion of a right-of-way 
retained by the United States pursuant to subsection (c) located outside the 
boundaries of a conservation system unit or National Forest if any such portion 

is— 



(A) not adjacent to or contiguous with any portion of the public 



lands; or 



(B) determined by the Secretary, pursuant to the disposal criteria 
established by section 203 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 
1976, to be suitable for sale. 

Prior to conducting any such sale, the Secretary shall take appropriate steps to 
afford a unit of State or local government or any other entity an opportunity to 
seek to obtain such portion pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection. 

(3) All proceeds from sales of such retained rights of way shall be 
deposited into the Treasury of the United States and credited to the Land and 
Water Conservation Fund as provided in section 2 of the Land and Water 
Conservation Fund Act of 1965. 

(4) The Secretary of the Interior shall annually report to the Congress the 
total proceeds from sales under paragraph (2) during the preceding fiscal year. 
Such report shall be included in the President's annual budget submitted to the 
Congress. 



78 



Appendix A: Legislation 



(f) As used in this section — 

(1) The term "conservation system unit" has the same meaning given such 
term in the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Public Law 96-487; 
94 Stat. 2371 et seq.), except that such term shall also include units outside 
Alaska. 

(2) The term "public lands" has the same meaning given such term in the 
Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. 

AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS 

SEC. 10. (a)(1) There are hereby authorized to be appropriated for the 
acquisition of lands or interests in lands not more than $5,000,000 for the 
Appalachian National Scenic Trail and not more than $500,000 for the Pacific 
Crest National Scenic Trail. From the appropriations authorized for fiscal year 
1979 and succeeding fiscal years pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation 
Fund Act (78 Stat. 897), as amended, not more than the following amounts may be 
expended for the acquisition of lands and interests in lands authorized to be 
acquired pursuant to the provisions of this Act: for the Appalachian National 
Scenic Trail, not to exceed $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1979; $30,000,000 for 
fiscal year 1980, and $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1981, except that the 
difference between the foregoing amounts and the actual appropriations in any 
one fiscal year shall be available for appropriation in subsequent fiscal 
years. 

(2) It is the express intent of the Congress that the Secretary should sub- 
stantially complete the land acquisition program necessary to insure the protec- 
tion of the Appalachian Trail within three complete fiscal years following the 
date of enactment of this sentence. Until the entire acquisition program is 
completed, he shall transmit In writing at the close of each fiscal year the 
following information to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the 
Senate and the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the House of Repre- 
sentatives: 

(A) the amount of land acquired during the fiscal year and the 
amount expended therefor: 

(B) the estimated amount of land remaining to be acquired; and 

(C) the amount of land planned for acquisition in the ensuring 
fiscal year and the estimated cost thereof. 

(b) For the purposes of Public Law 95-42 (91 Stat. 211), the lands and 
interests therein acquired pursuant to this section shall be deemed to qualify 
for funding under the provisions of section 1, clause 2, of said Act. 



79 



APPENDIXES 



(c)(1) There is hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be 
necessary to implement the provisions of this Act relating to the trails 
designated by paragraphs 5(a)(3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9) and (10): 
Provided , That no such funds are authorized to be appropriated prior to 
October 1, 1978: And provided further , That notwithstanding any other provisions 
of this Act or any other provisions of law, no funds may be expended by Federal 
agencies for the acquisition of lands or interests in lands outside the exterior 
boundaries of existing Federal areas for the Continental Divide National Scenic 
Trail, the North Country National Scenic Trail, The Ice Age National Scenic 
Trail, the Oregon National Historic Trail, the Mormon Pioneer National Historic 
Trail, the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, and the Iditarod National 
Historic Trail, except that funds may be expended for the acquisition of lands 
or interests therein for the purpose of providing for one trail interpretation 
site, as described in section 7(c), along with such trail in each State crossed 
by the trail. 

(2) There is hereby authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 1983 and 
subsequent fiscal years such sums as may be necessary to implement the 
provisions of this Act relating to the trails designated by paragraphs (9), 
(10), (11), (12), (13), (15), and (16) of section 5(a) of this Act. Not more 
than $500,000 may be appropriated for the purposes of acquisition of land and 
interests therein for the trail designated by section 5(a)(12) of this Act, and 
not more than $2,000,000 may be appropriated for the purposes of the development 
of such trail. The administrating agency for the trail shall encourage 
volunteer trail groups to participate in the development of the trail. 

VOLUNTEER TRAILS ASSISTANCE 

SEC. 11. (a)(1) In addition to the cooperative agreement and other 
authorities contained in this Act, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary 
of Agriculture, and the head of any Federal agency administering Federal lands, 
are authorized to encourage volunteers and volunteer organizations to plan, 
develop, maintain, and manage, where appropriate, trails throughout the Nation. 

(2) Wherever appropriate in furtherance of the purposes of this Act, the 
Secretaries are authorized and encouraged to utilize the Volunteers in the Parks 
Act of 1969, the Volunteers in the Forests Act of 1972, and section 6 of the 
Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (relating to the development of 
Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plans). 

(b) Each Secretary or the head of any Federal land managing agency, may 
assist volunteers and volunteers organizations in planning, developing, main- 
taining, and managing trails. Volunteer work may include, but need not be 
limited to — 

(1) planning, developing, maintaining, or managing (A) trails which 
are components of the national trails system, or (B) trails which, if so 
developed and maintained, could qualify for designation as components of 
the national trails system; or 

(2) operating programs to organize and supervise volunteer trail 
building efforts with respect to the trails referred to in paragraph (I), 
conducting trail-related research projects, or providing education and 
training to volunteers on methods of trails planning, construction, and 
maintenance. 



80 



Appendix A: Legislation 



(c) The appropriate Secretary or the head of any Federal land managing 
agency may utilize and make available Federal facilities, equipment, tools, and 
technical assistance to volunteers and volunteer organizations, subject to such 
limitations and restrictions as the appropriate Secretary or the head of any 
Federal land managing agency deems necessary or desirable. 

SEC. 12. As used in this Act: 

(1) The term 'high potential historic sites' means those historic sites 
related to the route, or sites in close proximity thereto, which provide oppor- 
tunity to interpret the historic significance of the trail during the period of 
its major use. Criteria for consideration as high potential sites include 
historic significance, presence of visible historic remnants, scenic quality, 
and relative freedom from intrusion. 

(2) The terra 'high potential route segments' means those segments of a 
trail which would afford high quality recreation experience in a portion of the 
route having greater than average scenic values or affording an opportunity to 
vicariously share the experience of the original users of a historic route. 

(3) The term 'State' means each of the several States of the United States, 
the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, 
Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Northern 
Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States. 

(4) The terra 'without expense to the United States' means that no funds may 
be expended by Federal agencies for the development of trail related facilities 
or for the acquisition of lands or Interest in lands outside the exterior bound- 
aries of Federal areas. For the purposes of the preceding sentence, amounts 
made available to any State or political subdivision under the Land and Water 
Conservation Fund Act of 1965 or any other provision of law shall not be treated 
as an expense to the United States. 



81 



APPENDIX B: STATE RECREATIONAL LIABILITY LAWS 



Missouri Statutes, Sections 537 345 to 537.348 



537.345. Definitions for sections 537.345 to 
537.347.— As used in sections 537.345 to 
537.347 the following terms mean: 

(1) "Charge", the admission price or fee 
asked by an owner of land or an invitation or 
permission without price or fee to use land for 
recreational purposes when such invitation or 
permission is given for the purpose of sales pro- 
motion, advertising or public goodwill in foster- 
ing business purposes; 

(2) "Land", all real property, land and water, 
and all structures, fixtures, equipment and ma- 
chinery thereon; 

(3) "Owner", any individual, legal entity or 
governmental agency that has any ownership or 
security interest whatever or lease or right of 

possession in land; 

(4) "Recreational use", hunting, fishing. 
camping, picnicking, biking, nature Mudy. win- 
ter sports, viewing or enjoying archaeological or 
scenic sues, or other similar activities under- 
taken for recreation, exercise, education, relaxa- 
tion, or pleasure on land owned by another. 

537.346. Landowner owes no duty of care to 
persons entering without fee to keep land safe 
for recreational use. — Except as provided in sec- 
tions 537.345 to 537.348, an owner of land owes 
no dut\ of care to any person who enters on the 
land without charge to keep his land safe for 
recreational use or to give any general or spe- 
cific warning with respect to an\ natural or arti- 
ficial condition, structure, or personal properly 
thereon 
(L 195.3 SB !62 § 2) 

537.34". Landowner directh or indirectly in- 
\itts or permits persons on land fur recreation, 
erfect. — Lvcept as provided in sections 55 ".345 
to 537. ?4>. .'.•-. owner of L-r.d who direct!) ■:: in- 
c recti;. ::v. tics or permits an\ person to enter 
his land Tor recreational use. without charge, 
whether or not the land is posted, does not 
thereby: 

(1) Extend any assurance that the premises 
are safe for any purpose; 

(2) Confer upon such person the status of an 
invitee, cr any other status requiring of the 
owner a du:\ of special or reasonable care; 

(3) Assume responsibility for or incur liability 
n\ injur\ to such person or proper!) caused 

b) an) ! or artificial condition, structure 

cr persona! proper!) on the premises; or 



(4) Assume responsibility for any damage or 
injury to any other person or property caused by 
an act or emission of such person. 
(L. I9S3 SB. !62 § 3) 

537. 34S. Landowner liable, when — defini- 
tions. — Nothing in this act * shall be construed 
: create ::2'c:!ity. but it coes net limit liabiiit) 
■."..it ether : w ::' be incurred b;. those who 
u^e the \zr.i ci others, or by owners of iar.d for: 

(1) Malicious or grossly negligent failure to 
guard or warn against a dangerous condition, 
structure, personal property which the owner 
knew or should have known to be dangerous, or 
negligent failure to guard or warn against an ul- 
trahazardous condition which the owner knew 
or should have known to be dangerous; 

(2) Injury suffered by a person who has paid 
a charge for entry to the land; or 

(3) Injuries occurring on or in: 

(a) Any land within the corporate boundaries 
of any city, municipality, town, or village in this 
st2te; 

(b) Any swimming pool. "Swimming pool" 
means a pool or tank, especially an artificial 
pool or tank, intended and adapted for swim- 
ming and held out as a swimming pool; 

(c) Any residential area. "Residential area" 
as used herein means a tract of land of one acre 
or less predominantly used for residential pur- 
poses, or a tract of land of any size used for 
multifamily residential services; or 

(d) Any noncovcrcd land. "\onco»ered land" 
as used herein means any portion of any land, 
the surface of which portion is actually used pri- 
marily for commercial, industrial, mining or 
manufacturing purposes; provided, however, 
that use of any portion of any land primarily for 
agricultural, grazing, forestry, conservation, 
natural area, owner's recreation or similar or re- 
lated uses cr purposes shall not un-':r an\ cir- 
cumstanccs be deemed to be u*e of such portion 
for commercial, industrial, mining or manufac- 
turing p u r ro.» e> . 

(1 195.3 SB :-;: ; 4. ,\ l 19m s b 580) 

" Words "ih'S act*' appear in original rolls. S B 5S0 con- 
tained or.lv section 53 7 348 The reference probably should 
be 10 "sections 537.345 to 537.348". the section numbers 
assigned to S B 162 of 1983. SB. 580 of 1984 sought only 
to correct a tjpographical error in section 537.348. 



s: 



Appendix B: State Recreational Liability Laws 



Kansas Statutes Annotated, Sections 58-3202, 58-3204, and 58-3206 



CHAPTER 198 
Senate Bill No. 529 

An Act concerning land recreational areas; relating to invitees or permittees; 
liabilities; amending K.S.A. 58-3202, 58-3204 and 58-3206 and repealing the 
existing sections. 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Kansas: 

Section 1. K.S.A. 58-3202 is hereby amended to read as fol- 
lows: 58-3202. As used in this act: (a) "Land" means land, roads, 
water, watercourses, private, ways and buildings, structures, and 
machinery or equipment when attached to the realty and in- 
cludes agricultural and nonagricultural land. 

(b) "Owner" means the possessor of" a fee interest, a tenant. 
lessee, occupant or person in control of the premises. 

(c) "Recreational purpose" includes, but is not limited to. 
any of the following, or any combination thereof: Hunting, fish- 
ing, swimming, boating, camping, picnicking, hiking, pleasure 
driving, nature study, water skiing, winter sports, and viewing or 
enjoying historical, archaeological, scenic, or scientific sites. 

(d) "Charge" means the admission price or fee asked in 
return for invitation or permission to enter or go upon the land. 

(e) "Agricultural land" means land suitable for use in farm- 
ing and includes roads, water, watercourses and private ways 
located upon or within the boundaries of such agricultural land 
and buildings, structures and machinery or equipment when 
attached to such agricultural land. 

(f; "Farming" means the cultivation of land for the produc- 
tion of agricultural crops, the raising of poultry, the production 
of eggs, the production of milk, the production of fruit or other 
horticultural crops, grazing or the production of Livestock. 

(g) "Nonagricultural land" means all land other than agri- 
cultural land. 

Sec. 2. K.S.A. 58-3204 is hereby amended to read as follows: 
58-3204. Except as specifically recognized by or provided in 
K.S.A. 58-3206, and amendments thereto, an owner of land who 
either direcdy or indirectly invites or permits without charge any 
person to use such property for recreational purposes or an 
owner of nonagricultural land who either directly or indirectly 
invites or permits without charge any person to use such prop- 
erty for recreational purposes does not therebv. (a) Extend any 
assurance that the premises are safe for any purpose. 

(bj Confer upon such person the legal status of an invitee or 
licensee to whom a dutv of care is owed. 



S3 



APPENDIXES 



(c) Assume responsibility- for or incur liability for any injury 
to person or property caused by an act of omission of such 
persons. 

Sec. 3. K.S. A. 58-3206 is hereby amended to read as follows: 
55-3206. Nothing in this act limits in any way any liability which 
otherwise exists: (a) For willful or malicious failure to guard or 
warn against a dangerous condition, use, structure, or activity 

lb) For injury suffered in any case where the owner of nona- 
gncultural land charges the person or persons who enter or go 
on the nona.ricultuTal land for the recreational use thereof, 
except that in the case of nonagncultura! land leased to the state 
or a subdivision thereof, am consideration received by the 
owner for such lease shall not be deemed a charge within the 
meaning of this section. 

Sec. 4. K.S.A. 58-3202, 58-3204 and 58-3206 are hereby re- 
pealed. 

Sec. 5. This act shall take effect and be in force :rom and 
after its publication in the statute book. 

Approved April 9, 1988 



Oklahoma Statutes, Sections 76-10 to 76-15 

§ 10. Definitions 

As used in this act: 

(a) "Land" means land which is used primarily for farming or 
ranching activities, roads, water, watercourses, private ways and 
buildings, structures, and machinery or equipment when attached to 
realty which is used primarily for farming or ranching activities. 

(b) "Owner" means the possessor of a fee interest, a tenant, 
lessee, occupant or person in control of the premises. 

(c) "Recreational purpose" includes, but is not limited to, any of 
the following, or any combination thereof: hunting, fishing, 
swimming, boating, camping, picnicking, hiking, pleasure driving, 
nature study, water skiing, winter sports, and viewing or enjoying 
historical, archaeological, scenic, or scientific sites. 

(d) "Charge" means the admission price or fee asked in return 
for invitation or permission to enter or go upon the land. 

Laws 1965, c. 384, § 1, cff. June 30, 1965. 

Historical Note 
Title of Act: 

An Act relating to torts ; exempt- property for recreational purposes: 
ing owners and less4>es of real prop- defining terms: providing for excep- 
erty from liability from injuries sus- tions; and declaring an emergency, 
tained by persons entering upon Laws lf>6."), c. 384. 

Library References 
Negligence C=32(2.1) et seq. C.J.S. Negligence J 63(27). 

84 



Appendix B: Slate Recreational Liability Laws 



§ 11. Entry upon farm or ranch lands for recreational pur- 
poses—Duty of owner 

Except as specifically recognized by or provided in Section 5 of 
this act, 1 an owner of land which is used primarily for farming or 
ranching activities owes no duty of care to keep the premises safe 
for entry or use by others for recreational purposes, or to give any 
warning of a dangerous condition, use, structure, or activity on such 
premises to persons entering for such purposes. 

Laws 1965, c. 384, § 2, eff. June 30, 1965. 
1 Section 14 of this title. 

§ 12. Use of property without charge — Liability of owner 

Except as specifically recognized by or provided in Section 5 of 
this act, an owner of land which is used primarily for farming or 
ranching activities, who either directly or indirectly invites or permits 
without charge any person to use such property for recreational 
purposes, does not thereby: 

(a) Extend any assurance that the premises are safe for any 
purpose. 

(b) Confer upon such person the legal status of an invitee or 
licensee. 

(c) Assume responsibility for or incur liability for any injury to 
person or property caused by an act or omission of such persons. 

Laws 1965, c. 384, § 3, eff. June 30, 1965. Laws 1967, c. 368, § 1, 
eff. May 22, 1967. 

Historical Note 

Laws 1967, c.368, § 1, changed title — Duty of owner" to "Use of proper- 

of section "Entry upon farm or ty without charge — Liability of own- 
ranch lands for recreational purposes er". 

§ 13. Lands leased to state 

Unless otherwise agreed in writing, the provisions of Sections 2 
and 3 of this act 1 shall be deemed applicable to the duties and 
liability of an owner of land leased to the state or any subdivision 
thereof for recreational purposes. 

Laws 1965, c. 384, § 4, eff. June 30, 1965. 
1 Sections 1 1 and 12 of this title. 

§ 14. Willful or malicious failure to warn — Charges to enter 
land 

Nothing in this act limits in any way any liability which 
otherwise exists: 

(a) For willful or malicious failure to guard or warn against a 
dangerous condition, use, structure or activity. 



85 



APPENDIXES 



(b) For injury suffered in any case where the owner of land 
charges the person or persons who enter or go on the land for the 
recreational use thereof, except that in the case of land leased to the 
state or a subdivision thereof, any consideration received by the 
owner for such lease shall not be deemed a charge within the 
meaning of this section. 

Laws 1965, c. 384, § 5, eff. June 30, 1965. 

§ 15. Duty of care or ground of liability not created — Persons 
using lands not relieved 

Nothing in this act shall be constructed to: 

(a) Create a duty of care or ground of liability for injury to 
persons or property. 

(b) Relieve any person using the land of another for recreational 
purposes from any obligation which he may have in the absence of 
this act to exercise care in his use of such land and in his activities 
thereon, or from the legal consequences of failure to employ such 
care. 

Laws 1965, c. 384, § 6, eff. June 30, 1965. 



Colorado Revised Statutes (1984), Sections 33-41-101 through 33-41-105 



ARTICLE 41 
Owners of Recreational Areas - Liability 

Cross reference: For when the liability and limitations on liability provided for in the "Park 
and Open Space Act of 1984" supersede the provisions of this article. See § 29-7.5-106. 
33-41-101. Legislative declaration. 33-41-105. Article not to create liability 

33-41-102. Definitions. or relieve obligation. 

33-41-103. Limitation of landowner's 

liability. 
33-41-104. When liability is not limited. 

33-41-101. Legislative declaration. The purpose of this article is to encour- 
age owners of land within rural areas to make land and water areas available 
for recreational purposes by limiting their liability toward persons entering 
thereon for such purposes. 

Source: R & RE. L. 69, p. 411, § 1; C.R.S. 1963, § 62-4-1. 

Landowner's right to close streams to public. People v. Emmert, 198 Colo. 137, 597 P.2d 

Implicit in this section is the legislative recogni- 1025(1979). 

lion of the right of a landowner to close to public Applied in Ottcson v. United States. 622 F.2d 

access the streams overlying his lands. 516 (10th Cir. 1980). 



86 



Appendix B: State Recreational Liability Laws 



33-41-102. Definitions. As used in this article, unless the context otherwise 
requires: 

(1) "Charge" means a consideration paid for entry upon or use of the land 
or any facilities thereon or adjacent thereto. 

(2) "Land" also means roads, water, watercourses, private ways, and buildings, 
structures, and machinery or equipment thereon, when attached to real property. 

(3) "Owner" includes, but is not limited to, the possessor of a fee interest, 
a tenant, lessee, occupant, the possessor of any other interest in land, or any 
person having a right to grant permission to use the land, or any public entity 
as defined in the "Colorado Governmental Immunity Act", article 10 of title 24 
C.R.S., which has an interest in land. 

(4) "Person" includes any individual, regardless of age, maturity, or 
experience, or any corporation, government or governmental subdivision or 
agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, or association, or any other 
legal entity. 

(5) "Recreational purpose" includes, but is not limited to, any sports or other 
recreational activity of whatever nature undertaken by a person while using the 
land, including ponds, lakes, reservoirs, streams, paths, and trails appurtenant 
thereto, of another and includes, but is not limited to, any hobby, diversion, or 
other sports or other recreational activity such as: Hunting, fishing camping, 
picnicking, hiking, horseback riding, snowshoeing, cross country skiing, 
bicycling, riding or driving motorized recreational vehicles, swimming, tubing, 
diving, spelunking, sight-seeing, exploring, hang gliding, rock climbing, kite 
flying, roller skating, bird watching, gold panning, target shooting, ice skating, 
ice fishing, photography, or engaging in any other form of sports or other 
recreational activity. 

Source: R & RE, L. 69, p. 411, § 1; C.R.S. 1963, § 62-4-2; L. 73, p. 661, 
§ 1; L. 83, p. 1302, § § 1, 2. 

Applied in People v. Emmert, 198 Colo. 137. 
597 P.2d 1025(1979); Otteson v. United States. 
622 F.2d 516(10th Cir. 1980). 

33-41-103. Limitation on landowner's liability. (1) Subject to the provision 
of section 33-41-105, an owner of land who either directly or indirectly invites 
or permits, without charge, any person to use such property for recreational 
purposes does not thereby: 

(a) Extend any assurance that the premises are safe for any purpose; 

(b) Confer upon such person the legal status of an invitee or licensee to 
whom a duty of care is owed; 

(c) Assume responsibility or incur liability for any injury to person or 
property or for the death of any person caused by an act or omission of such 
person. 

Source: R & RE. L. 69, p. 412, § 1; C.R.S. 1963, § 62-4-3. 

Federal government protected on national forest service land. Otteson v. United States, 

forest service land. The federal government is 622 F.2d 516 (10th Cir. 1980). 

entitled to the protection of this article as 
concerns accidents occurring on national 



87 



APPENDIXES 



33-41-104. When liability is not limited. (1) Nothing in this article limits 
in any way any liability which would otherwise exist: 

(a) For willful or malicious failure to guard or warn against a known dan- 
gerous condition, use, structure, or activity likely to cause harm; 

(b) For injury suffered by any person in any case where the owner of land 
charges the person who enters or goes on the land for the recreational use 
thereof: except that, in case of land leased to the state or a political subdivision 
thereof, any consideration received by the owner for such lease shall not be 
deemed a charge within the meaning of this article nor shall any consideration 
received by an owner from any federal governmental agency for the purpose 
of admitting any person constitute such a charge; 

(c) For maintaining an attractive nuisance; 

(d) For injury received on land incidental to the use of land on which a 
commercial or business enterprise of any description is being carried on. 

Source: R & RE. L. 69, p. 412, § 1; C.R.S. 1963, § 62-4-4. 

Applied in Otteson v. United States. 622 
F.2d 516 (10th Cir. 1980). 

33-41-105. Article not to create liability or relieve obligation. (1) Nothing 
in this article shall be construed to: 

(a) Create, enlarge, or affect in any manner any liability for willful or 
malicious failure to guard or warn against a known dangerous condition, use, 
structure, or activity likely to cause harm, or for injury suffered by any person 
in any case where the owner of land charges for that person to enter or go on 
the land for the recreational use thereof, 

(b) Relieve any person using the land of another for recreational purposes 
from any obligation which he may have in the absence of this article to exer- 
cise care in his use of such land and in his activities thereon or from the legal 
consequences of failure to employ such care; 

(c) Limit any liability of any owner to any person for damages resulting 
from any occurrence which took place prior to January 1, 1970. 

Source: R & RE. L. 69, p. 412, § 1; C.R.S. 1963, § 62-4-5. 



New Mexico Statutes Annotated, Section 17-4-7 



Appendix B: State Recreational Liability Laws 



17-4-7* Liability of landowner permitting persons to hunt, fish or use 
lands for recreation; duty of care; exceptions. 

A Any owner, lessee or person in control of lands who. without charge or other 
consideration, other than a consideration paid to said landowner by the state, the federal 
government or any other governmental agency, grants permission to any person or group 
to use his lands for the purpose of hunting, fishing, trapping, camping, hiking, sightseeing 
or any other recreational use does not thereby: 

(1) extend any assurance that the premises are safe for each purpose; or 

(2) assume any duty of care to keep such lands safe for entry or use; or 

(3) assume responsibility or liability for any injury or damage to, or caused by, such 
person or group; 

(4) assume any greater responsibility, duty of care or liability to such person or 
group, than if such permission had not been granted and such person or group were 
trespassers. 

B. This section shall not limit the liability of any landowner, lessee or person in control 
of lands which may otherwise exist by law for injuries to any person granted permission to 
hunt, fish, trap, camp, hike, sightsee or use the land for recreation in exchange for a 
consideration, other than a consideration paid to said landowner by the state, the federal 
government or any other governmental agency. 



89 



APPENDIX C: HIGH-POTENTIAL HISTORIC SITES AND ROUTE SEGMENTS 

ALONG THE SANTA FE TRAIL 



The following list briefly describes the 194 high- 
potential sites along the Santa Fe National Historic 
Trail (see "Historic Sites and Route Segments" 
section in the text), and it identifies which sites are 
listed on the National Register of Historic Places 
(NR) or have been designated as national historic 
landmarks (NHL). The sites are numbered from 
Franklin to Santa Fe by way of the Cimarron route 
and then returning by way of the Mountain route. 
The approximate locations of sites are shown on the 
Historic Route map. Cross-country segments are 
listed in table C-l. Future research may reveal other 
sites with high potential for official trail certification 
(see "Historic Sites and Route Segments"). 



MAIN TRAIL SITES 
Missouri Sites 

1. Franklin Site. The site of Franklin is north of 
the Missouri River and about 0.5 mile west of the 
Boonville bridge on Missouri Highway 87. Franklin 
was the town where William Becknell and his party 
started out for Santa Fe in 1821 and followed parts 
of the Osage Trace. They returned with substantial 
profits, signaling the opening of the Santa Fe Trail. 
Franklin was washed away by the Missouri River in 
1826-27. The historic site is north of the present 
river channel. 

2. Boone's Lick. Boone's Lick is a Missouri state 
historic site north of Petersburg. The salt lick or 
natural saltwater spring was the primary salt 
producer for settlements along the Missouri River 
from 1805 until the 1830s. Nathan and Daniel 
Morgan Boone, sons of Daniel Boone, developed 
this economic resource. William Becknell was 
associated with salt production and owned some of 
the area. It was at Franklin that the Santa Fe Trail 
began as an extension of the Boonslick Road, 
although the route had been used before 1821 as 
the Osage Trace, a route from Franklin to Fort 
Osage. (NR) 

3. Arrow Rock. Arrow Rock is the name of a 
bluff on the west side of the Missouri River that 
was used as a landmark. The Lewis and Clark 
expedition passed by here in 1804. About 1811 a 
ferry across the river was established, leading from 
the Boonslick Road to what was originally the 
Osage Trace to Fort Osage (the route later followed 



by the Santa Fe Trail). The town of Arrow Rock, 
formed in 1829, was a significant site on the Santa 
Fe Trail. (NHL) (NR) 

4. Arrow Rock Landing. The Arrow Rock 
landing, located near the town of Arrow Rock, was 
in use from around 1811 until 1927. Ruts of the 
road from the landing to the community of Arrow 
Rock may still be identified. (NHL) (NR) 

5. Santa Fe Spring. Santa Fe Spring is at Arrow 
Rock, Missouri. It is also known as Big Spring, a 
place that early traders - including William Becknell 
- used as a point of departure on the trail. (NHL) 
(NR) 

6. Huston Tavern. Huston Tavern is in Arrow 
Rock. The tavern, which is on the south side of 
Main Street in the center of town, was built about 
1834 by Joseph Huston. It is known to have been 
visited by many who traveled the Santa Fe Trail. 
(NHL) 

7. Neff Tavern Site. Located northwest of Arrow 
Rock, the Neff Tavern site is where Isaac Neff built 
a log tavern on the Santa Fe Trail in 1837. The trail 
went between the tavern and the barn (a later stage 
station), skirted the family cemetery, and continued 
to the northwest. The tavern was torn down in 1890. 
The only remaining original structure is the stone 
smokehouse at the left rear of the brick residence. 
(NR) 

8. Harvey Spring/Weinrich Ruts. A fine set of 
five deep ruts are south of Saline County Road 416. 
The location is 5 miles northwest of Marshall. 

9. Grand Pass. A landmark on the Osage Trace, 
the Grand Pass begins about 3 miles west of Malta 
Bend. It is a terrace between the Salt Fork and the 
Missouri River bottoms followed by present US 
Highway 65. At the east edge of the village of 
Grand Pass is the community cemetery, which 
contains excellent ruts of the Santa Fe Trail. 

10. Tabo Creek Crossing. The Tabo Creek cros- 
sing is south of the Missouri River, 8 miles east of 
Lexington, Missouri, and within sight of US 
Highway 24. As a major tributary on the south bank 
of die Missouri River, Tabo Creek presented an 
obstacle to travelers on both the Osage Trace and 
Santa Fe Trail routes. In 1821 a license was issued 



90 



Appendix C: High-Potential Historic Sites and Segments 



to operate a ferry across the creek. A DAR marker 
(now in Lexington) formerly stood on the creek 
bank here. 

11. Lexington. The Santa Fe Trail entered 
Lexington on what is now US Highway 24, then 
followed Missouri Highway 224 west along South 
Street. It passed the site of "Old Town" where the 
first courthouse stood and continued to Twentieth 
Street, turning left and on past the Machpelah 
Cemetery toward the present US 24 junction. It 
followed the Osage Trace into Jackson County. 
Later a branch of the trail went west toward the 
Missouri River in the vicinity of Jack's Ferry south 
of the present highway bridge over the river. On 
Water Street stood a variety of warehouses and 
other establishments that served the trail. James and 
Robert Aull outfitted trading caravans from 
Lexington, and Robert is buried in the Machpelah 
Cemetery. 

12. Fort Osage. Fort Osage was at the north city 
limits of Sibley, Missouri, 14 miles northeast of 
Independence. It was built in 1808 to fulfill one of 
the provisions of a treaty between the Osage Indians 
and the United States. It was sited on a high bluff 
on the right bank of a big bend of the Missouri 
River so that the river could be used both for transit 
and protection. The fort was the westernmost fur- 
trading factory of the U. S. factory system and, due 
to the efforts of factor George Champlin Sibley, the 
only profitable one. Fort Osage was also for a time 
the westernmost U.S. military post. According to the 
terms of the treaty, the fort was a trade center for 
the Osage, Kansa, and other regional tribes, and it 
was also a convenient rendezvous for trappers, 
mountainmen, and explorers. It became a transition 
point between overland routes to the west and 
southwest and waterborne routes on the Missouri 
River to the east. The U.S. government officially 
closed the fort in 1822, and Sibley attempted to 
operate it as a private trading enterprise from 1822 
to 1824 but failed. The official U.S. government 
survey of the Santa Fe Trail in 1825-27, which was 
headed by Sibley, began 1.75 miles south of Fort 
Osage, where the Osage Trace crossed the eastern 
boundary of Indian lands as defined by the 1808 
treaty. The survey starting point is commemorated in 
place names that endure today, such as 110 Mile 
Creek and 142 Mile Creek. (Sibley completed the 
165 miles from eastern Jackson County to west of 
Council Grove in 1827.) Fort Osage lasted for a few 
years as the embarkation point for westward travel 
on the Santa Fe Trail, but it was soon succeeded by 
Independence. Today the fort has been partially 
restored as a Jackson County park. (NHL) 



13. Little Blue River Crossing. This crossing of 
the LitUe Blue River, near the north end of Lentz 
Road, is at the site where the Blue Mills were 
located. Until bridged in 1837, it was a difficult 
river crossing for Santa Fe Trail travelers. 

14. Blue Mills. The site of two Blue Mills is at 
the north end of Lentz Road in Jackson County. 
Remnants of the 1834 steam-powered gristmill 
remain, but there is nothing of the 1835 steam- 
powered sawmill. The Santa Fe Trail ran between 
the two mills. The Little Blue River was crossed by 
a bridge in 1834. The mills were owned by Michael 
Rice, Samuel C. Owens, and James and Robert Aull, 
all merchants and traders on the Santa Fe Trail. 

15. Lower Independence (Blue Mills) Landing. 

The Lower Independence Landing is on the right 
bank of the Missouri River, about 1 mile north of 
the current intersection of Whitney and Courtney 
roads and 5.5 miles northeast of Independence. This 
steamboat landing (and an earlier ferry operation) 
was used from about 1832 into the 1860s, and 
counUess tons of trade goods bound for Santa Fe 
went up to Independence from this landing. Today 
the Santa Fe Roailroad tracks cover the site, and no 
traces remain of the original landing or ferry. 

16. Upper Independence (Wayne City) Landing. 

The Upper Independence Landing is on the right 
bank of the Missouri River, north of the Cement 
City Road and the Missouri Portland Cement 
Company and about 3.25 miles north of 
Independence. This steamboat landing (and an earlier 
ferry operation) was never as successful or used as 
long at the Lower Independence Landing. Some of 
the merchandise unloaded here was carried to Santa 
Fq. No trace of the landing remains. 

17. Jackson County Courthouse. The square in 
Independence has had a brick courthouse since 1829. 
The present courthouse dates from a 1933 remod- 
eling and expansion overseen by Administrative 
Judge Harry S Truman. It countains elements of the 
red brick 1836 courthouse and parts of six later 
remodelings and expansions. Some of the deeds 
recorded here mention trails, and some of the 
magistrate and circuit court cases heard here 
involved traders' and merchants' delinquent debts 
and broken contracts. Trading caravans forming to 
leave Independence for Santa Fe would sometimes 
nearly encircle the courthouse on the square's four 
streets before heading south on Liberty Street. (NR) 

18. Jackson County Log Courthouse. Located at 
107 West Kansas in Independence, this structure was 



91 



APPENDIXES 



built in 1827 as temporary quarters for the Jackson 
County government. Deeds to commercial property 
on the square were issued and filed here, and 
merchants' and ferry operators' licenses for the early 
traders and businessmen in Independence and 
Jackson County were issued here. Independence 
merchant and Santa Fe trader Samuel C. Owens was 
a county clerk who handled some of these deeds 
and licenses; Samuel D. Lucas, another merchant 
and Santa Fe trader, was his deputy. The log 
courthouse was moved from its original site to its 
current location in 1916. The building was altered 
during the 1920s to its present appearance. 

19. Kritser House. The Martin O. Kritser house at 
115 West Walnut in Independence was built in 
1847. Kritser made at least one trip to Santa Fe 
three years before he built this residence. It is 
typical of the average middle class home in 
Independence during its heyday as the eastern 
terminus of the Santa Fe Trail. (NR) 

20. Jackson County Jail. Located at 217 North 
Main in Independence, the jail was built in 1859 
and served as the center for county law enforcement 
in the waning days of the Santa Fe trade in 
Independence. (NR) 

21. Lewis-Webb House. The Lewis-Webb home, 
at 302 North Mill in Independence, was built in 
1834, with an addition in 1853. John Lewis, the 
builder, was a saddler and Santa Fe freighter. (NR) 

22. Ferril-Henley House. The William Ferril- 
Alonzo F. Henley house is at 3940 South Crysler in 
Independence and was built about 1830 by Ferril 
(who may be related to the Henry Ferril who trav- 
eled to Santa Fe on Becknell's second trip). After a 
series of owners, Henly bought the house in 1856. 
Henley and his wife's family (the Gentrys) were 
active in the Santa Fe trade. 

23. Noland House. Located at 1024 South Forest 
in Independence, the small, two-room back section 
was built in 1831 and the large two-story brick front 
section was built about 1850 for Smallwood Noland. 
Noland was the proprietor of the Washington House, 
a well-known hostelry on the square and one 
frequented by Santa Fe traders and travelers. 

24. 205 North Main. This commercial structure is 
possibly one of the oldest intact commercial 
buildings in the Independence Square area. There is 
a corbeled gable at the rear of the building, and 
there was also one at the front until the building 
was remodeled. Corbeled, or stepped, gables were 



typical of early construction; examples on similar 
structures can be seen on the 1866 Bird's-Eye View 
of Independence, owned by the Jackson County 
Historical Society. 



25. 207-209 North Main. This commercial 
building was built about 1850 and was remodeled 
about 1920. Most of the building is probably the 
same structure housing the 1850 Kenton House 
Hotel. The first story has been extensively 
remodeled; the second story, however, remains 
intact. 

26. 206-208 North Main. Like the Independence 
courthouse, this building is a good example of the 
evolutionary nature of buildings on Independence 
Square. Portions of Smallwood Noland's 1846 hotel 
can be seen from the back courtyard. The building 
has suffered numerous fires and has been rebuilt, but 
it was never completely torn down. Although various 
lacunae make interpretation difficult, the structure 
remains important to the history of the square. 

27. Woodlawn Cemetery. The cemetery is on 
Noland Road in Independence. It was first patented 
by Robert Rickman in 1837, and the site was being 
used as a county and city burial ground before 1845. 
The present cemetery complex consists of the 
original city cemetery, the Stayton family cemetery, 
St. Mary's cemetery, the segregated black cemetery, 
and a potter's field. Dozens of people who were 
important to the Santa Fe Trail story are buried 
here, including Hiram Young, Samuel and Robert 
Weston, freighter John Lewis, hotel proprietor 
Smallwood Noland, Mexican War veteran John T. 
Hughes, merchants William and John McCoy, and 
attorneys William Chrisman and Samuel Woodson. 

28. Jabez Smith Overseer's House. Located in 
Independence on North Broadway, this house was 
attached to the farm operation of Jabez Smith, a 
slave speculator and farmer in the 1850s who also 
had connections to the Santa Fe trade. 

29. Lewis Jones House. This house is at the 
northwest corner of Main and Elizabeth streets in 
Independence. The land was purchased by Jones in 
1836. Jones was a wagonmaker and owner of the 
1849 Nebraska House hotel in Independence. As a 
Santa Fe trader, merchant, and financial backer for 
other Santa Fe merchants and traders, Jones was an 
unusually successful businessman. 

30. Santa Fe Trail Park Ruts. The trail is visible 
as a swale at the creek crossing in this Indepen- 
dence city park near Santa Fe Road and 29th Street. 



92 



Appendix C: High-Potential Historic Sites and Segments 



31. Santa Fe Trail Ruts - 31st Street and Santa 
Fe Road. Ruts of the Santa Fe Trail in Indepen- 
dence are visible about 450 feet south of 31st Street 
and about 500 feet east of Santa Fe Road (on the 
west side of Santa Fe Terrace). Near 3126 Santa Fe 
Road, on the east side of the road, is a clearly 
visible Santa Fe Trail ramp down part of a high 
creek bank. 

32. Lewis-Bingham-Waggoner House. Located at 
313 West Pacific in Independence, this 19-acre tract 
is along the route of the Santa Fe Trail as it left the 
square area. Osage Street, which borders the tract on 
the east, was part of the trail alignment before 1835. 
The width of the trail has not changed since that 
time; a road-cut on the southeast corner of the 
property where Osage turns into Linden Street also 
dates from that period. Lewis built part of the 
house. The property was owned for six years after 
the Civil War by George Caleb Bingham, Missouri's 
genre artist, and his wife. In 1879 the Waggoner 
family, who owned the mill across Pacific Avenue, 
purchased the acreage with the house. The main 
house was built in the 1850s and was extensively 
remodeled in the 1890s; it is now a house museum. 

33. Public Spring Site. This spring is on a plot of 
land north of the National Frontier Trails Center and 
a railroad spur, and it may be the first dedicated 
park land (1827) in the state. It was from this spring 
that traders bound for Santa Fe could fill their 
wagon barrels before heading out to the trail on 
Osage Street (just east of the Lewis-Bingham- 
Waggoner house). This property remained in 
municipal hands until the 1920s, when it was sold 
to private interests. The spring was buried in the 
1970s. 

34. Overfelt- Johnston House. This house, at 305 
South Pleasant in Independence, was built about 
1850 by John Overfelt, who owned and operated the 
city mills at the public spring on the Santa Fe Trail. 
This structure remains in nearly original condition. 

35. Gilpintown, River Boulevard and Kentucky 
Road. This was the site of a real estate scheme 
conceived by geopolitician William Gilpin about 
1855. It is adjacent to the Upper Independence 
(Wayne City) Landing. The failure of the 
development caused Gilpin to enter into a legal 
battle with Santa Fe trader and Gilpintown investor 
David Waldo; both men, who were from Indepen- 
dence, had served together in the Mexican War. 
Gilpin was an Independence resident until 1860, and 
he served on both the city council and the public 
school board. It was due to Gilpin's influence that 



a port of customs for the Santa Fe trade was 
established in Independence in 1845. 

36. William McCoy House. William McCoy was 
the first mayor of Independence (1849). He was a 
Santa Fe trader and a backer of other Santa Fe 
traders, as well as a banker, a merchant, a contract 
freighter for the army, and a partner in early 
stagecoach operations on the trail. His home, at 410 
West Farmer, may have been built by another Santa 
Fe trader, Samuel C. Owens. 

37. Big Blue River Crossing. The actual crossing 
site of the Big Blue River near old US Highway 40 
is no longer visible. Traders who went from 
Independence to Westport to outfit used this less 
popular crossing of the Big Blue. The ruts going 
northwest up the steep hill west of the river are still 
visible at 27th and Topping Avenue. 

38. Archibald Rice Farmhouse. At 8801 East 
66th Street in Raytown, Missouri, is the farmhouse 
of Archibald Rice. The house was reportedly built in 
the 1830s, although it has been somewhat changed. 
The Santa Fe Trail passed northeast of the house, 
and travelers wrote about stopping for produce. 

39. Red Bridge Crossing. The Red Bridge cros- 
sing in Kansas City, Missouri, was initially a ford, 
one of many difficult river crossings on the way to 
Santa Fe. The Red Bridge was constructed at this 
site in 1859. This important river crossing is about 
300 yards north of the present Red Bridge. 

40. Minor Park Ruts. An excellent set of ruts 
crosses Mi.Tor Park, which is administered by the 
Kansas City Parks and Recreation Department. 
Easily accessible, these ruts are among the best on 
the entire trail. 

41. Harris House. The Harris house was built by 
Santa Fe trader John Harris in 1855 at the corner of 
Westport Road and Main Street and was moved to 
its present location at 4000 Baltimore in 1922. Still 
located within the confines of the Historic Old 
Westport District, the home now serves as a 
museum and headquarters for the Westport Historical 
Society. 

42. Ewing-Boone Store. The Ewing-Boone store, 
at the corner of Westport Road and Pennsylvania, 
was constructed in 1850-51 by William and George 
Ewing, who were licensed traders with the Shawnee 
Indians across the border in Kansas. The store was 
sold to Albert Gallatin Boone in 1854, the same 
year Kansas became a territory and the Shawnee 



93 



APPEND IXES 



Reservation was terminated. This building remains 
today at its original location; however, it was 
drastically remodeled in the 1890s. 

43. Jim Bridger's Store. Jim Bridger's store was 
built just west of the Ewing-Boone store, on 
Westport Road. It was built in 1850 by Cyprien 
Chouteau, who sold it to Jim Bridger in 1866. 
Bridger's son-in-law, Albert Wachsmann, operated a 
store in the building. The building remains today, 
but it has been altered considerably to serve its 
current use as a restaurant. 

44. William Bent House. The William Bent house 
is at 1032 West 55th Street, in Kansas City, 
Missouri. William Bent, who built Bent's Fort in 
partnership with his brother Charles and Ceran St. 
Vrain, stayed here on occasion, and his second wife, 
Yellow Woman, and children may have spent time 
here. The land was bought in 1858 by Bent, but the 
small house was already standing, having been built 
and occupied for 18 years by the Matney family. 
Adeline Harvey Bent married William in 1867, and 
she owned the land after his death in 1869 and sold 
it in 1871. When her husband died, she came into 
a great deal of money, and she built the north end 
of the north/south configuration of the big house. 

45. Westport Landing. The Westport landing is 
where Grand Avenue meets the southern bank of the 
Missouri River just below the mouth of the Kansas 
River. The historic landing itself has been obliterated 
by modern developments, but its overall use remains 
that of a river port. The town of Westport, 4 miles 
south of the Westport landing, has long since been 
incorporated by Kansas City, but it remains defined 
by the Old Westport Historic District and includes 
the historic buildings that are associated with the 
Santa Fe Trail. Westport was the major point of 
embarkation on the Santa Fe Trail after it 
superseded Independence in the late 1840s to the 
early 1850s. Only Fort Leavenworth rivaled 
Westport as the point of organization of wagon 
trains for travel to Santa Fe after 1850. 

46. New Santa Fe. New Santa Fe is now at the 
southern edge of the Kansas City metropolitan area, 
west of the intersection of Holmes and Santa Fe 
Trail Street and behind the present Santa Fe Bible 
Church. New Santa Fe grew up at the western edge 
of Missouri, where the Big Blue campground 
developed west of the Red Bridge crossing 
(approximately 3 miles southwest of the Blue River). 
Trading stores were established here, especially to 
sell liquor, which was prohibited in the Indian lands 
west of Missouri. There also was a Santa Fc Trail 



stage station at this site in the 1850s. A cemetery 
and historical marker (located behind the church) are 
all that remain of this site today. It was never a 
large settlement. 

47. Watts' Mill Site. The site of Watts' Mill is on 
Indian Creek one block east of State Line Road on 
103rd Street in southern Kansas City, Missouri, and 
behind the present-day Watts' Mill shopping center. 
The Fitzhugh Mill was erected at this site in 1832, 
and Santa Fe Trail wagon trains sometimes 
rendezvoused at this site, where there was plenty of 
water and grazing for livestock. Anthony Watts 
purchased the mill in 1850 and operated it in later 
Santa Fe Trail days. Some of the grain ground at 
this mill was undoubtedly used to supply traders on 
the trail. Some foundations and the millstones 
remain today, and plans are underway to reconstruct 
the mill. 

48. Alexander Majors House. The Alexander 
Majors house was built in 1855 on the east side of 
State Line Road near 85th Street in Kansas City, 
Missouri. Majors was the leading freighter on the 
Santa Fe Trail from 1848 to the Civil War, being 
the primary contractor for military freight on the 
route. In partnership with William Russell and 
William Waddell, Majors sent thousands of wagons 
over the trail. The house has been restored as a 
museum. (NR) 



Kansas Sites 

49. Shawnee Mission. The Shawnee Methodist 
Indian Mission is at Mission Road and 53rd Street 
in Fairway, Kansas, just a few blocks west of State 
Line Road. Begun in 1830 in present Wyandotte 
County, it was relocated in 1839 to its present site 
in Johnson County near a branch of the Santa Fe 
Trail originating in Westport. The remains of three 
original brick mission buildings are now owned by 
the state of Kansas, administered by the Kansas 
State Historical Society, and operated as a museum. 
Trail ruts are still visible to the north of these 
buildings. The blacksmith shop of the mission was 
reportedly used by trail travelers, many of whom 
mentioned the mission and the Shawnee Indians on 
whose reservation it stood. (NHL) 

50. Grinter House and Ferry. The Grinter house 
and ferry sites are east of the city of Bonner 
Springs on Kansas Highway 32. The first ferry 
across the Kansas River was started in this vicinity 
in 1830 or 1831 by Moses Grinter, and it was used 
by Fort Leavenworth troops to reach the Santa Fe 



94 



Appendix C: High-Potential Historic Sites and Segments 






Trail. The ferry was important to the Fort 
Gibson-Fort Leavenworth military road, opened in 
the 1830s. This became a major branch of the Santa 
Fe Trail until the Mexican War and was also used 
after that time, although other branches from Fort 
Leavenworth were opened. The two-story brick 
house was built by Moses Grinter on the northern 
bluff above the Kansas River in the late 1850s. 
Today this house is fully restored, owned by the 
state of Kansas, and administered by the Kansas 
State Historical Society as a museum. In the 1850s 
the stagecoach line from Independence to Fort 
Leavenworth and beyond also crossed the river on 
the Grinter ferry. The site of the ferry can still be 
viewed from the Grinter house, although its precise 
location is not known. (NR) 

51. Mahaffie Farmstead. The Mahaffie farmstead 
is on the north edge of the city of Olathe at 1 100 
Kansas City Road. The farmstead was a stage 
station on the road from Westport, and dinners were 
served in the basement of the house. The two-story 
native limestone house was constructed in 1865 and 
is the only known Santa Fe Trail stage station that 
is open to the public. It is owned and operated by 
the city of Olathe. (NR) 

52. Lone Elm Campground. The Lone Elm camp- 
ground is 3 miles south of Olathe on Lone Elm 
Road, on the main branch of the Santa Fe Trail 
from Independence. There was a spring here (now 
enclosed in a small well) and excellent grazing for 
livestock. Originally known as Round Grove or Elm 
Grove because of a grove of trees, the campground 
was a major campsite for travelers, who eventually 
cut down all the trees except one for firewood, 
resulting in its name "Lone Elm." The last tree was 
also finally cut down, but the name endured. 

53. Fort Leavenworth. Fort Leavenworth is north- 
west of Kansas City at the northern edge of the city 
of Leavenworth and adjacent to the Missouri River. 
Established in 1827, Fort Leavenworth housed the 
military troops that were sent to protect the Santa Fe 
Trail until other forts were built along the route. The 
fort served as the command headquarters for all the 
troops serving along the trail from the Mexican War 
until the trail closed in 1880. From this post 
marched the Army of the West, which conquered 
the Southwest during the Mexican War, and the 
Mormon Battalion, which followed it to California. 
Fort Leavenworth was a key military installation 
during the Civil War and the Indian wars, both of 
which affected the Santa Fe Trail. The fort served 
as the shipping point for military freight over the 
trail. From Fort Leavenworth several trails connected 



to the main Santa Fe Trail. After 1846 more freight 
was shipped from Fort Leavenworth to the southwest 
than from any other point. Fort Leavenworth is still 
an active U.S. Army post. (NHL) 

54. Fort Leavenworth River Landing. The river 
landing at Fort Leavenworth was the point at which 
military supplies were unloaded from steamboats and 
onto wagons for transit to large warehouses near the 
river. Huge quantities of those military supplies were 
freighted over the Santa Fe Trail to military posts 
along the route and throughout the Southwest. The 
landing has changed dramatically due to changes in 
the channel and flow of the Missouri River, but the 
remains of one warehouse can still be seen today. 
(NHL) 

55. Fort Leavenworth Ruts. Dramatic ruts extend 
westward from the river landing upward toward the 
parade ground. (NHL) 

56. Fort Leavenworth Parade Ground. The Fort 
Leavenworth parade ground is within the fort proper. 
Here expeditions and wagon trains were formed for 
the trip to Santa Fe. Several old buildings remain 
near the parade ground. (NHL) 

57. Fort Leavenworth Officers' Row. The Fort 
Leavenworth officers' row is near the parade 
ground. Several old buildings remain, including the 
Rookery, which was built in 1832 and served as 
officers' quarters during the Santa Fe Trail era. The 
Rookery is the oldest building now in use in 
Kansas. (NHL) 

58. Santa Fe Trail / Oregon Trail Junction. The 

junction of the Santa Fe Trail and the Oregon Trail 
is approximately 2 miles west of the town of 
Gardner on US Highway 56, and 0.25 mile to the 
north. At this point the Santa Fe and Oregon trails 
separated after following the same route from 
Independence, Missouri. In the 1840s a sign, which 
said "Road to Oregon," was erected at this site. 

59. Black Jack Park Ruts. A dramatic set of 
parallel ruts are located in Douglas County Prairie 
Park, adjacent to Black Jack State Park east of 
Baldwin City. These are among the finest along the 
entire length of the trail. 

60. The Narrows. The Narrows ran from just west 
of present Black Jack State Park east of Baldwin 
City to the site of Willow Spring some 9 miles 
west. Wagon trains had to stay on this ridge to 
avoid rough terrain and muddy draws. 



95 



APPENDIXES 



61. Palmyra Well. The Palmyra well is within 
present-day Baldwin City, Kansas, to the east of the 
high school. The community of Palmyra grew along 
the Santa Fe Trail in the 1850s, and the well pro- 
vided water for trail travelers and their livestock. 
Palmyra has long since been absorbed into Baldwin 
City, but its presence on the Santa Fe Trail has been 
commemorated with markers nearby, and the well is 
identified today as the Santa Fe well. One mile to 
the northwest is Trail Park, which contains 
interpretive markers; just beyond the park are 
stretches of county roads that lie on the trail. 

62. Blue Mound. Blue Mound is approximately 3 
miles south of Lawrence, Kansas. This prominent 
hill, which is south of the Kansas River, served as 
a landmark for travelers on their way to the Santa 
Fe Trail along the 1846 military road from Fort 
Leavenworth. Blue Mound is the larger and more 
prominent of two hills that are sometimes referred 
to as the Wakarusa Buttes. 

63. Simmons Point Stage Station. The Simmons 
Point stage station is north of US Highway 56 and 
12 miles west of Baldwin City. The stage station 
itself remains today as part of a privately owned 
farmhouse that has been abandoned. The station was 
operated by Phillip and Elmira Dodder Simmons, 
but its actual dates of operation are unknown. 

64. McGee-Harris Stage Station. The McGee- 
Harris stage station is about 1 mile south of US 
Highway 56 on the east bank of 110 Mile Creek 
and east of Burlingame, Kansas. This stage station 
was started in the 1850s by Fry McGee, who also 
erected a toll bridge over 110 Mile Creek here. 
McGee's son-in-law, named Harris, built a residence 
and store nearby, and following the death of McGee, 
he operated the station from 1861 to 1866, when 
this segment of the trail closed. Crumbled building 
remains are all that are left today of the stage 
station, residence, and store. 

65. Switzler Creek Crossing. The Switzler Creek 
crossing is at the eastern edge of the town of 
Burlingame, Kansas, very near the present-day US 
Highway 56 bridge. A toll bridge was operated here 
from 1847 to the 1860s, and it was at Burlingame 
that the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway 
made its first contact with the Santa Fe Trail in 
1869. The trail went down the main street of 
Burlingame. 

66. Dragoon Creek Crossing. The Dragoon Creek 
crossing is 3 miles northwest of Burlingame and 
north of Kansas Highway 31. This site is a natural 



rock crossing point on Dragoon Creek. The creek 
itself is reported to have been named after a troop 
of dragoons who came over the Santa Fe Trail in 
the 1850s, or possibly for a dragoon, Samuel Hunt, 
whose grave is located just to the west. This natural 
crossing still appears as it did in the trail days. 

67. Havana Stage Station. The Havana stage 
station is about 1 mile west of Dragoon Creek and 
just south of Kansas Highway 31. Reportedly built 
in 1858, this station was complemented by a store 
and a hotel. Today the hotel and store are gone, and 
only the remains of the stage station are discernible, 
although the Heart of the Flint Hills Chapter of the 
Santa Fe Trail Association is planning to restore it 

68. Samuel Hunt Grave. The Samuel Hunt grave 
is just north of Kansas Highway 31 and about 0.5 
mile west of the Havana stage station site. Private 
Samuel Hunt, U.S. Army Dragoons, served with 
Colonel Henry Dodge's Rocky Mountain expedition 
in 1835 and died at this location on the return 
march to Fort Leavenworth. This is the earliest 
known gravesite of a soldier on the Santa Fe Trail. 

69. Soldier Creek Crossing. The Soldier Creek 
crossing is southwest of the Samuel Hunt grave, 
where visible Santa Fe Trail ruts lead to the creek. 
The creek is reportedly named after an army unit 
that suffered heavy losses from cholera at this 
location in 1851. 

70. Wilmington. This community was located at 
the junction of the Santa Fe Trail and the Military 
Road from Fort Leavenworth by way of Topeka. In 
1857 a few setUers located at the junction, and in 
the next year a post office was established here. 
Wilmington became a thriving community, replete 
with several establishments catering to trail traffic. 
The citizens established a school district in 1861. 

71. Council Oak. The Council Oak site is in the 
eastern part of the town of Council Grove, Kansas, 
on US Highway 56. Under this oak tree it is 
believed that a treaty was negotiated with the Osage 
Indian tribe in 1825 for safe passage of Santa Fe 
Trail traffic through their lands. The tree itself was 
destroyed by a storm several years ago, but the 
stump remains under a protective canopy. (NHL) 

72. Post Office Oak. The Post Office Oak is in 
the eastern part of Council Grove on present-day US 
Highway 56. This oak tree had a hole in its base 
that was used as a cache for mail. Letters were 
placed in the tree by travelers and picked up by 
those going in the opposite direction for delivery. 



96 



Appendix C: High-Potential Historic Sites and Segments 



This "post office" was used by trail travelers from 
the 1820s to about 1847, when Seth Hays 
established a trading store at Council Grove. Today 
only a portion of this tree still stands. (NHL) 

73. Neosho River Crossing. The Neosho River 
crossing is about where US Highway 56 bridges the 
Neosho River at Council Grove. This was an 
important river crossing on the Santa Fe Trail. The 
steep banks and high water sometimes made 
crossings difficult and prompted other crossings 
close to the highway bridge. 

74. Hays House Restaurant (Frame Store). The 
Hays House Restaurant is on Main Street in Council 
Grove. Seth Hays came to Council Grove in 1847 
to trade with the Kaw Indians, whose reservation 
was nearby. He originally built a log house, out of 
which he traded, and then in about 1859 he put up 
the large building originally called the Frame Store. 
It is that replacement store that has been remodeled 
as the Hays House Restaurant. Some of the original 
timbers may be seen in the basement. The building 
has seen many uses, including a general store, hotel, 
saloon, and courthouse. The restaurant claims to be 
the oldest restaurant west of the Missouri River. 
(NHL) 

75. Conn/Stone/Pioneer Store. The Conn Store is 
in Council Grove on the south side of US Highway 
56 (Main Street) at Neosho Street, in the town's 
business district. This store was considered to be 
one of the most important trading stores in Council 
Grove during the Santa Fe Trail era. The building 
was erected in 1858, and although much altered 
from its original state, it is still in use by a local 
business. 

76. Seth Hays House. The Seth Hays house is in 
Council Grove about two blocks south of Main 
Street (US Highway 56). Built in 1866, this house 
was lived in by Seth Hays, his black maid, and his 
adopted daughter. The house is important because 
of Hays's prominence in Council Grove and his 
connection with the Santa Fe traders. It is one of 
the few trail homes in the area that has been 
preserved in nearly original condition, and it is 
currently operated as a museum. (NHL) 

77. Kaw Mission. The Kaw Mission is on the 
northern edge of the town of Council Grove. Built 
about 1850 as a school for Kaw Indian children, it 
became a school for white children when the Indians 
refused to send their children to classes there. It was 
the first all-white school in Kansas. Today the 
building is one of the oldest buildings still standing 



in this part of Kansas and is operated by the Kansas 
State Historical Society as a museum. (NR) 

78. Hermit's Cave. Hermit's Cave is two blocks 
north of US Highway 56 (Main Street) on Belfry 
Street in Council Grove. On this site is a small cave 
that was reportedly the home of an Italian religious 
mystic, Giovanni Augustini, for a few months before 
he traveled to New Mexico on the Santa Fe Trail. 

79. Last Chance Store. Last Chance Store is west 
of the Council Grove business district on the north 
side of US Highway 56. This store has become 
known as the most famous, but not the largest nor 
the most important, trading store in Council Grove 
during the trail era. Built in 1857, the privately 
owned building remains today in a nearly original 
state. (NHL) 

80. Diamond Spring. Diamond Spring is near the 
headquarters of the Diamond Spring Ranch south- 
west of Council Grove. This site was a campsite 
favored by Santa Fe Trail travelers because of the 
high-quality springwater. It was known during the 
trail era as the "Diamond of the Plains." A stage 
station and small settlement grew up here prior to 
the Civil War, but these were destroyed in a raid by 
Missouri bushwhackers, led by Dick Yeager, in 
1863. The station was never rebuilt, but Diamond 
Spring continued to be a valuable water source and 
popular campsite as long as the trail was active in 
this vicinity. (NR) 

81. Six Mile Creek Crossing and Stage Station 
Site. The Six Mile Creek crossing and stage station 
site are on the road that runs south from US 
Highway 56 toward the town of Burdick, Kansas, 
and just south of the bridge over Six Mile Creek. 
Six Mile Creek was named because it is 6 miles 
from Diamond Spring. There are good trail ruts 
coming into the crossing site from the east, but the 
actual crossing is no longer visible. The stage station 
opened about 1863 after the Diamond Spring station 
was destroyed. The station was in use until 1866 or 
1867, when the stage line moved to Junction City, 
Kansas, because of railroad construction. A ranching 
operation was headquartered at this site after the 
station was abandoned, ana the station building 
served as the ranch house until after the turn of the 
century. Today only the basement walls and some 
debris from the upper stories can be seen, with 
some trail ruts nearby. 

82. Lost Spring. Lost Spring is 2.3 miles west of 
the town of Lost Springs on the north side of a 
paved road. Lost Spring was a valuable source of 



97 



APPENDIXES 



water for trail travelers and was also used for a 
trading ranch, stage station, and campground. The 
spring still flows today, and wagon ruts are visible 
near the crossing of the small creek on the south 
side of the paved road. (NR) 

83. Cottonwood Creek Crossing. The Cottonwood 
Creek crossing is about 1 mile west of the town of 
Durham, Kansas. This site was a major campsite on 
the Santa Fe Trail, but was widely known as a 
difficult crossing because of the steep banks and 
occasional high water. There were several instances 
when wagon trains were caught here by blizzards 
and suffered losses of both livestock and human 
lives. This was also the site of a stage station and 
the largest trading ranch west of Council Grove on 
the trail. George Smith started the stage station and 
trading ranch about 1856, and this site became the 
first post office in Marion County. A. A. and Ira 
Moore bought the property in 1859 and operated it 
until the railroad came to the area in 1870-71. 
Today nothing remains of the crossing or the ranch, 
but a few wagon ruts may still be seen northeast of 
Cottonwood Creek, and there is an outstanding 
segment of ruts southwest of this stream. 

84. Durham Ruts. An outstanding set of ruts 
extends southwest to northeast across unbroken 
prairie land on the Scully property southwest of 
Durham, Kansas. 

85. Miller Grave. The Ed Miller grave is in Jones 
Cemetery, which is 2.25 miles east and 0.5 mile 
north of Canton, Kansas. In 1864, 18-year-old Ed 
Miller was killed by the Cheyenne Indians as he 
rode to warn residents at a trading ranch that 
Indians were raiding in the area. He was buried near 
the site of his death, and the site became a cemetery 
after the area was settled. 

86. 1825 Kaw Treaty Site. The site of the 1825 
treaty with the Kansa Indians is 1 mile south of 
Elyria, Kansas, just north of a gravel road (FAS 
445) and east of Dry Turkey Creek. In 1825 the 
Santa Fe Trail survey commissioners met at this site 
with members of the Kansa or Kaw Indian tribe to 
negotiate permission for the trail to pass through the 
their lands. The Kansa then lived north of the 
Kansas River and cast of present Manhattan, and the 
trail crossed only a small segment of their lands. 
The Kansa Indians were to have gone to Council 
Grove to meet with the commissioners immediately 
following the Osage Treaty, but they failed to arrive 
in lime and had to follow them down the trail. The 
Indians caught up with the commissioners at Dry 
Turkey, where the treaty was signed. 



87. Little Arkansas River Crossings. The two 

crossings of the LitUe Arkansas River are 5 miles 
south of US Highway 56 on county road 443 on 
the McPher son-Rice county line, and then 0.5 mile 
west. The upper crossing is marked by a cottonwood 
(the "Marker Cottonwood"), which still stands and is 
surrounded by wagon ruts from the Santa Fe Trail 
caravans. The lower crossing is no longer visible. 
Stones were placed in the river bottom of the upper 
crossing to provide a firm surface for the wagons, 
and these stones are reportedly visible when the 
stream is dry. A toll bridge was built at the lower 
crossing in the late 1850s or early 1860s, and the 
areas on both sides of the river were popular 
campsites for trail travelers. 

88. Military Camp (Camp Grierson). Camp 
Grierson is south of the lower crossing of the LitUe 
Arkansas River and south of the present-day county 
road. The camp was established in the summer of 
1865 to protect the crossings and the trading ranch 
there during a period of Indian unrest. The camp 
was manned once more in 1867 by one company 
from the black regiment of the 10th Cavalry. It was 
at this time that the troops established a more 
permanent position and named it Camp Grierson. 
After several months the troops were withdrawn. 
Some of the earthworks of the camp are still visible 
south of the county road on the east side of the 
river. Several soldiers were killed by Indians in the 
vicinity (some of these were deserters from units 
farther west) and buried near the camp, but the 
larger number of dead buried there were black 
soldiers who died of cholera while stationed at 
Camp Grierson. The bodies were later removed to 
the Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery, but the 
burial pits may still be seen south of the military 
campsite. 

89. Stone Corral Site. The stone corral site is on 
the south side of the lower crossing of the Little 
Arkansas River, just north of the existing county 
road. This corral was probably the most famous 
structure at the crossings and was built in connection 
with the trading ranch and stage station there. Stone 
for the corral was quarried 2 miles away. The corral 
was used from the early 1860s until after the Santa 
Fe Trail was abandoned. At some later time the 
stone walls were dismantled, and the stone was used 
for construction at other locations. Today no trace 
remains of the corral. 

90. Jarvis (Chavez) Creek Crossing. The location 
of the Jarvis (Chavez) Creek crossing is reportedly 
near the center of section 17 in Wilson Township, 
west of the Little Arkansas River and along Jarvis 



98 



Appendix C: High-Potential Historic Sites and Segments 



Creek in Rice County. This site is important because 
Antonio Jose Chavez, a Hispanic trader, was 
murdered here in 1843. This murder became an 
international incident, with ramifications in 
Washington, D.C., and Mexico City. 

91. Cow Creek Crossing. The Cow Creek crossing 
is 4 miles west of Lyons on US Highway 56, 1 
mile south, and then west to a bridge over Cow 
Creek. The actual crossing was just south of the 
present bridge. Cow Creek was an important camp- 
ground and crossing where a trading ranch and stage 
station developed in 1858. The ranch and stage 
station were built east of the crossing by Asahel and 
Abijah Beach in 1858. A well was dug at approxi- 
mately the same time to provide water for livestock 
and for travelers on the Santa Fe Trail. A toll bridge 
was built over Cow Creek in 1859. The present 
bridge is believed to be below the site of the 
original, which was reportedly just north of the old 
crossing of Cow Creek. Looking south from the 
west end of the present bridge, stones for crossing 
the streambed were identified during the drought of 
1988. 

92. Beach Ranch (Buffalo Bill's) Well. Buffalo 
Bill's well is 4 miles west of Lyons, on US 
Highway 56 and then 1 mile south on a gravel road. 
At this point two gravel roads intersect, and the well 
is in the northwest quadrant of that intersection, very 
near the road. The well was originally dug to serve 
the Beach ranch at Cow Creek crossing, providing 
water for livestock as well as for travelers on the 
Santa Fe Trail. Sometime after 1860 William 
Mathewson, who was known as Buffalo Bill, 
purchased the Beach ranch (also called the Cow 
Creek ranch) and operated it until 1866. (Mathewson 
was known as Buffalo Bill because he helped supply 
buffalo meat to starving settlers in Kansas Territory 
during the severe drought of 1859-60). 

93. Ralph's Ruts. These ruts are 4 miles west of 
Chase, Kansas, on US Highway 56, then 0.75 mile 
north on the Ralph Hathaway farm. The seven 
parallel trail ruts are some of the finest examples of 
pristine trail remains any place along the entire 
route. Visitors to the site have easy access, a turnout 
for parking, and a DAR marker to point out the 
location. In addition, evidence indicates that the so- 
called Plum Buttes Massacre of 1867 occurred near 
the eastern boundary of the Hathaway quarter- 
section. Extending westerly from here, the ruts 
continue on intermittently for another 2 miles, where 
they form the spectacular Gunsight Notch, a ridge 
worn away by 60 years of commercial and military 
traffic. 



94. Plum Buttes. The Plum Buttes were 4 miles 
west of Chase, Kansas, on US Highway 56, 1 mile 
north on a gravel road, and then 1 mile west. Plum 
Buttes referred to several very large sand dunes that 
were covered by plum bushes. These highly visible 
dunes became landmarks for travelers on the Santa 
Fe Trail, who sought to avoid the soft, sandy, and 
nearly impassable soils along the Arkansas River. 
Plum Buttes was a favorite nooning spot on the 
trail, and because it was the only landmark in the 
vicinity, it was often used as a reference point to 
delineate the location of significant events. Thus, the 
1867 massacre near Ralph's Ruts, 1 mile east, is 
known as the Plum Buttes Massacre. The last dune, 
still visible in the 1870s and 1880s, had disappeared 
because of wind erosion by 1900. 

95. Walnut Creek Crossing - Barton County, 
Kansas. The Walnut Creek crossing is about 2 miles 
east of Great Bend and south of US Highway 56. 
The crossing included a trading ranch, toll bridge, 
and military post. When the creek flooded, wagon 
trains would camp on its banks for days waiting to 
cross. It was one of the first streams in the region 
to have a toll bridge. (NR) 

96. Allison and Booth's Fort or Ranch and 
Peacock Ranch Trading Post Site. The sites of 
these small trading posts are 2 miles east of Great 
Bend, Kansas, and south of US Highway 56, near 
the Walnut Creek crossing. William Allison and 
Francis Booth(e), formerly conductors for Waldo, 
Hall and Company on the Santa Fe mail run, opened 
a post on the north side of the trail and east of the 
Walnut crossing in 1855, in the heart of Plains 
Indian lands. They established trade with the Plains 
tribes and also sold supplies to trail travelers. Booth 
was killed by a disgruntled employee in 1857, and 
Allison died in 1859 at Independence, Missouri, 
while on a trip to purchase supplies. George 
Peacock apparently acquired the trading rights from 
Allison's estate, and thereafter evidently constructed 
a new stone building as a trading post. Peacock was 
killed by the Kiowa war chief Satank in 1860, and 
the trading rights then went to Charles Rath. Rath 
operated the ranch until 1867, when the army 
ordered him out for selling arms, ammunition, and 
whiskey to the Indians. The Indians burned the post 
a few months later, and today only the foundations 
remain. 

97. First Fort Zarah Site. The first Fort Zarah 
was established in 1864 to help protect mail service 
on the Santa Fe Trail. The fort was about 200 yards 
west of the trading ranch on the east side of Walnut 
Creek and north of the crossing toll bridge. This 



99 



APPENDIXES 



was also at or near the point where the Fort 
Harker-Fort Riley military road met the Santa Fe 
Trail. The mail station and corrals were on the south 
side of Walnut Creek, across the creek from the 
fort. The foundations of this structure have been 
partially excavated. 

98. Second Fort Zarah Site. The second Fort 
Zarah site is on the north side of US Highway 56, 
about 2 miles east of Great Bend, Kansas, and about 
0.5 mile east of the roadside park. This second fort 
was built in 1867, about 0.5 mile north of the first 
one. This was a more permanent post, comprised of 
a large stone building with quarters for officers and 
troops, kitchens and mess halls, storerooms, and 
other functions. This post was abandoned in 1869, 
when it was felt that the Indian threat was not 
sufficient to warrant a second post so close to Fort 
Larned. 

99. Pawnee Rock. Pawnee Rock is 0.5 mile north 
of US Highway 56 on the north edge of the town of 
Pawnee Rock, Kansas. Pawnee Rock was one of the 
best known natural features along the Santa Fe Trail 
in Kansas. Although some of the rock was removed 
by settlers and the railroads for construction 
materials, one can still enjoy panoramic views across 
the prairie from this relatively high landmark. It is 
administered by the Kansas State Historical Society. 
(NR) 

100. Ash Creek Crossing. The Ash Creek crossing 
is 5 miles southwest of Pawnee Rock. This was not 
a difficult crossing, but nonetheless it developed into 
a campsite for Santa Fe Trail travelers. This site is 
historically significant because Susan Shelby 
Magoffin's carriage upset here and she later 
miscarried as a result of the accident, 

101. Pawnee Fork Crossings. There were three 
crossings of the Pawnee Fork. One, the wet route 
or river road crossing, was on the south edge of the 
present town of Larned, Kansas; the second, the dry 
route crossing, was on the west edge of the present 
Larned State Hospital grounds; and the third, 
apparently established as a stage line crossing, was 
approximately 0.5 mile east of the present site of 
Fort Larned National Historic Site. The wet route 
crossing is no longer visible. The dry route crossing 
site may still be seen and crossed by means of a 
small bridge. It was a difficult crossing at times, and 
a campsite was developed there. A mail and stage 
station was located at this crossing in 1859, and this 
led to the establishment of Fort Larned, first located 
nearer this crossing than the present military post. 
Just west of this crossing was a trading ranch, 



Boyd's Ranch, which was just off the Fort Larned 
Military Reservation and thus could provide off-post 
entertainment in the form of liquor, gambling, and 
prostitutes. It has not been determined when the 
third crossing was established or how long it was 
used, but it was apparently used by a stage line. The 
bulk of trail traffic likely used the dry route crossing 
where Boyd's Ranch was located. 

102. Fort Larned National Historic Site. Fort 
Larned National Historic Site is on Kansas Highway 
107, 6 miles west of Larned. Active from 1859 to 
1878, Fort Larned was one of the major military 
installations on the Santa Fe Trail (only Fort Union 
in New Mexico was larger). Nine of the ten original 
stone buildings remain today, and the tenth was 
reconstructed in 1988. This is one of the best 
preserved frontier military posts in the American 
West, as well as on the entire Santa Fe Trail. 
Restoration and refurnishing of the fort are nearly 
completed. One building has been adapted to serve 
as museum, interpretive center, and administrative 
office. A set of Santa Fe Trail wagon ruts is located 
in a detached area 5 miles south of the fort. (NHL) 

103. Coon Creek Crossing. The Coon Creek 
crossing is just north of US Highway 56, about 1.5 
miles west of the town of Garfield, Kansas. Wagon 
ruts are still visible on the north bank of the creek. 

104. Black Pool. The Black Pool is about 4 miles 
east of Ford, Kansas (1 mile north on Kansas 154, 
across the Arkansas River, 3.5 miles east on the first 
gravel road and then 0.5 mile south to a pasture). 
The well-preserved pool is about 0.25 mile into the 
pasture and is beside the Santa Fe Trail wet route 
and near the Arkansas River. Well-defined trail ruts 
are nearby. The Black Pool is a spring, and the 
water appears to be black when viewed from above 
because of an underlying shelf of shale. Many 
inscriptions have been left in the rock ledge above 
the pool, including one that states "BLACK POOL 
US POST 1843," although its authenticity has not 
been established. This pool is not identified in any 
Santa Fe Trail literature nor is it identified in 
military records, but the location matches that of an 
incident in 1843 when U.S. troops commanded by 
Capt. Philip St. George Cooke captured the Texan 
Snively expedition nearby. 

105. Lower Crossing. The Lower Crossing of the 
Arkansas River is near where Kansas Highway 154 
crosses the river about 1 mile north of Ford. This 
stream crossing was used by some early wagon 
trains on the Santa Fe Trail, and it was one of 
several crossings of the Arkansas. The area from 



100 



Appendix C: High-Potential Historic Sites and Segments 



here to the Cimarron River was known as the 
Cimarron Desert or La Jornada. There is evidence 
that this was an ancient river crossing used by 
Indians in prehistoric times. The Lower Crossing 
was not used much after the early 1830s because the 
distance from the Arkansas to the Cimarron River 
was shorter from the Middle and Upper crossings. 
In addition the dry route, from near Pawnee Rock to 
the site where Fort Dodge was later established, 
rejoined the Arkansas River west of this crossing. 

106. Fort Dodge. Fort Dodge is about 2.5 miles 
east of Dodge City on Kansas Highway 154. The 
post was founded in 1865 to help protect a long 
section of the Santa Fe Trail. The fort site had been 
previously used as a campsite by trail travelers 
because the wet and dry routes rejoined at this 
point A stage station preceded the fort, but it was 
burned by Indians. From this fort Gen. Phil Sheridan 
launched his winter campaign of 1868-69, and Fort 
Dodge was the point from which supplies were sent 
by wagon train into the field for that campaign. 
Those supplies came to Fort Dodge via the Fort 
Hays-Fort Dodge road. Fort Dodge troops were 
also charged with the protection of stagecoaches, 
mail, and railroad construction crews. The fort was 
removed from service in 1882. Today the former 
fort serves as the Kansas State Soldiers Home. 
Several original buildings remain, including the 
commanding officer's quarters, several officers' 
quarters, enlisted men's barracks, and the post 
hospital. Although they have been remodeled, they 
illustrate army life along the Santa Fe Trail. 

107. Walnut Creek Crossing - Rush County, 
Kansas. The Walnut Creek crossing at this site 
(section 20, T18S, R20W) was a difficult one. A 
bridge and trading ranch were established here by 
a Mr. Fink, according to local tradition. Alexander 
Harvey, a former soldier, was the recorded owner 
and operator beginning in 1872. He also had a "fort" 
or stockade for protection, and he operated a toll 
bridge. The town of Alexander developed around his 
trading ranch. A state marker is at the site. The Fort 
Hays-Fort Dodge road was an important branch of 
the Santa Fe Trail from 1867 to 1872. When the 
Union Pacific Railroad, Eastern Division, reached 
Hays in 1867, all military freight and most 
commercial freight destined for Santa Fe and beyond 
was shipped by rail to Hays and then hauled by 
wagon to the main Santa Fe Trail near Fort Dodge. 
The volume of military freight was immense during 
1867-69, a period of warfare with Plains Indians. 
This branch came to an end in 1872, when the 
Santa Fe Railroad reached Dodge City. 



108. Pawnee Fork (Duncan's Crossing). The 

Pawnee Fork crossing is 5.4 miles north of US 
Highway 156 in Hodgeman County, Kansas (section 
8, T21S, R21W), on the Fort Hays-Fort Dodge 
road. This site was also a trading ranch and toll 
bridge site. The crossing was built and developed by 
John O'Laughlin in 1869 and later sold to George 
Duncan. Ruts made by Santa Fe Trail wagon traffic, 
and the creek bank cutdowns, can still be seen. 

109. Sawlog Creek Crossing. The Sawlog Creek 
crossing was on the Fort Hays-Fort Dodge road. It 
is on the Warner ranch, about 15 miles northeast of 
Dodge City (sec. 6, T25S, R23W). There are 
well-defined wagon ruts and cutdowns on both sides 
of the crossing. 

110. The Caches Site. The Caches, located in 
section 29 or 30, T26S, R25W, was an oft-noted 
landmark on the trail. These famous pits, commented 
on by numerous trail travelers, were dug out in 
1822-23. A trading party led by James Baird and 
Samuel Chambers set out from Missouri late in 
1822. Their pack train was caught by a blizzard near 
this site. They lost their pack animals to the harsh 
weather. Later, in 1823, they dug pits to cache their 
goods, went to New Mexico to purchase mules, and 
came back and dug up their goods and took them to 
Santa Fe. The pits were left open. Numerous 
travelers thereafter commented about the pits, which 
became a landmark on the trail, although no 
evidence of them remains today. 

111. Point of Rocks - Ford County, Kansas. 

About 2.3 miles beyond Dodge City and on the 
north side of US Highway 50 is a low rounded hill 
that until recently had a large rocky face protruding 
on the south end. Called Point of Rocks - the first 
of several along the trail - it was a major landmark 
for trail travelers. Two of the earliest trading 
expeditions to New Mexico, the Cooper party 
outbound and the Fowler party returning to Missouri, 
met here on June 12, 1822. The famous rock 
protrusion was destroyed in 1981 when the Kansas 
Highway Department widened the road. 

112. Fort Mann Site. The Fort Mann site is about 
1 mile west of Dodge City on US Highway 50. Fort 
Mann was established in April 1847 because the 
Army needed a post midway between Fort Leaven- 
worth and Santa Fe to repair wagons and replace 
animals. It was a quartermaster repair station with a 
log stockade for protection, and it was erected under 
the direction of Daniel P. Mann. Although not a 
regular military post, Fort Mann was defensible and 
occasionally occupied by regular troops, such as the 



101 



Al'I'liNDIXES 



Indian Battalion of Missouri Volunteers in 1847-48. 
It was abandoned in 1848. 

113. Fort Atkinson Site. The Fort Atkinson site is 
about 2 miles west of Dodge City on US Highway 
50 and was originally established as Camp Mackay 
on August 8, 1850, to control Indians and to protect 
the Santa Fe Trail. On June 25, 1851, a newly built 
fort was officially designated as Fort Atkinson. 
Being constructed of sod, it was popularly known as 
"Fort Sod" or "Fort Sodom," and it was the first 
fully garrisoned fort to be erected along the Santa 
Fe Trail. Its mission was to protect the trail from 
Indian raids. It was not successful. Atkinson was 
abandoned permanently on October 2, 1854, because 
of its inadequate buildings and the difficulty and 
expense of supplying it. Attempts were made to 
protect this section of the Santa Fe Trail with 
summer patrols of troops from 1855 to 1859. 

114. Santa Fe Trail Ruts. This excellent set of ruts 
is 9 miles west of Dodge City on the north side of 
US Highway 50. It is owned and managed by the 
Boot Hill Museum, which permits visitors to walk 
to the site of the parallel ruts. The Kansas Highway 
Department has provided a turnout and parking area 
for easy access. (NHL) 



Arkansas River, and finding this spring meant the 
travelers had survived La Jornada. Campgrounds 
were developed at this site. After use along the 
Santa Fe Trail and during the era of cattle drives 
from Texas, this site became known as Wagon Bed 
Springs, the result of cowboys sinking an old wagon 
bed in the spring. (NHL) 

117. Middle (Cimarron) Spring. Middle Spring is 
8 miles north of Elkhart on Kansas Highway 27, 
and about 1 mile west on a dirt road through 
Cimarron National Grassland to a small enclosed 
park on the north side of the road. After Lower 
Spring, Middle Spring was the next reliable water 
source for travelers in the Cimarron Valley. This 
made it a major stopping point and campsite on the 
Santa Fe Trail. 

118. Point of Rocks - Morton County, Kansas. 

This Point of Rocks is 8 miles north of Elkhart on 
Kansas 27 and 1.5 miles west on a dirt road through 
Cimarron National Grassland. It was a lookout along 
the Cimarron Valley for both Indians and traders, 
with one branch of the trail running between the 
rock and the river. This landmark remains as it was 
during the trail era, and it is still surrounded by 
grasslands, where wagon ruts can be seen. 



CIMARRON ROUTE 



Oklahoma Sites 



Kansas Sites 

115. Middle (Cimarron) Crossings. The Middle 
Crossings of the Arkansas River to the Cimarron 
River extended from the Caches site, about 2 miles 
west of Dodge City, to as far as Charleston, 26 
miles farther west. No crossings are visible today 
because of sandy soils and frequent floods. US 
Highway 50 along the Arkansas River closely 
follows the trad route and passes by the crossing 
sites. Almost all trail traffic followed the Cimarron 
route until the Civil War and shortly thereafter. 
Wagons were able to cross the Arkansas River 
virtually anywhere in this region due to its shallow 
flows. The Middle Crossings were the scenes of 
numerous Indian attacks during the trail era. 

116. Lower Cimarron Spring. Lower Cimarron 
Spring is on the north bank of the Cimarron River, 
approximately 11 miles south and 1.5 miles west of 
Ulysses (about 2 miles west of the markers on 
Kansas 25 south of the river bridge). Lower Spring 
was well known to all travelers who look the 
Cimarron route because it was the first reliable 
water supply they encountered since leaving the 



119. Willow Bar. Willow Bar is approximately 11 
miles north and 1 1 miles east of Boise City, 
Oklahoma. Here the Santa Fe Trail crossed the 
Cimarron River, leaving the valley for higher ground 
and passing on both sides of Wolf Mountain. 
Willow Bar usually had water and was frequently 
used as a campsite. It was also the scene of Indian 
attacks and other problems. 

120. Wolf Mountain. Wolf Mountain is between 
Willow Bar and Upper Spring on the Santa Fe Trail, 
about 9 miles north of Boise City on US Highway 
286/385, and then to the northeast. Branches of the 
trail passed on both sides of this mountain on the 
way to Upper Spring. 

121. Upper (Flag) Spring. Upper or Flag Spring is 
9 miles north and 1.5 miles west of Boise City. 
Upper Spring is a beautiful setting, with a high 
rocky hill, the spring, a pond formed by an earthen 
dam, and views to the Cimarron Valley. It was a 
campsite on the Santa Fe Trail and also the scene of 
Indian troubles. 



102 



Appendix C: High-Potential Historic Sites and Segments 



122. Cold Spring and Inscription Rock. Cold 
Spring 1 is 6 miles west and 8 miles north of Boise 
City. Inscription Rock contains the names of many 
Santa Fe Trail travelers from the 1840s and later. 
This site is believed to be the location of the stage 
station at Cold Spring. 

123. Cold Spring and Autograph Rock. Cold 
Spring 2 is approximately 7 miles west and 7 miles 
north of Boise City. A branch of the Santa Fe Trail 
ran south of this spring site. Autograph Rock, which 
contains the names of many trail travelers from the 
1850s and later, is nearby. 

124. Camp Nichols. Camp Nichols is about 3.5 
miles northwest of Wheeless, Oklahoma. Founded by 
Colonel Kit Carson, it was occupied for only a few 
months in 1865. The troops stationed here were 
charged with protecting travelers on the Cimarron 
and Aubry cutoffs. The soldiers built a stone wall 
around the parade ground and erected some officer's 
quarters and other structures. This is the only 
military site on the trail in Oklahoma. Wagon ruts 
can still be seen about 0.5 mile south of the fort. 
The site was also home to an army officer's wife, 
Marian Sloan Russell, who wrote much about Camp 
Nichols in her book Land of Enchantment. (NHL) 

125. Cedar Spring and Carrizozo Creek. Cedar 
Spring is near the Camp Nichols site, 3.5 miles 
northwest of Wheeless. This spring was the source 
of water for Camp Nichols as well as for Santa Fe 
Trail travelers. Names are carved in the nearby 
canyon walls of Carrizozo Creek, including members 
of the Penrose expedition, who were caught there in 
a blizzard in 1868, and T O. Boggs, an expedition 
scout who later founded Boggsville in Colorado. 



New Mexico Sites 

126. McNees Crossing. McNees Crossing of 
Corrumpa Creek is 3.5 miles west of the Oklahoma 
state line, then 1.5 miles south on New Mexico 
Highway 406. This rock crossing (which is still 
visible) was named for a young trader, McNees, 
who was killed here by Indians in 1828. The 
crossing was also used as a campground, and a 
group of traders celebrated the Fourth of July in 
1831. This site retains much of its original 
appearance. A division of the trail east of Camp 
Nichols rejoined the trail just east of McNees 
Crossing. Good wagon ruts may be seen in the area. 
(NHL) 



127. Rabbit Ears. The Rabbit Ears (actually two 
peaks) are about 7 miles northwest of the town of 
Clayton, New Mexico (ranch/sec. 370) and about 1 
mile north of the road. This landmark was named 
for a Cheyenne Indian called Rabbit Ears who was 
killed nearby. The trail ran several miles to the 
north, but it was a guiding landmark for the 
approach to McNees Crossing. (NHL) 

128. Turkey Creek Camp. Turkey Creek camp is 
about 7 miles north of Rabbit Ears Mountain 
(ranch/sec. 370). The crossing of Turkey Creek was 
a difficult one. This site had water and a nearby 
supply of wood and good grazing land, making it a 
better campsite for Santa Fe Trail travelers than 
McNees Crossing. (NHL) 

129. Rabbit Ears Creek Camp. The Rabbit Ears 
Creek camp is on private land about 6 miles north 
of the town of Mount Dora, New Mexico. This was 
considered an excellent campground, with spring- 
water, grass, wood, and game for food. Many wagon 
trains reportedly rested at this site for a couple of 
days. Wagon ruts are still visible. (NHL) 

130. Mount Dora. Mount Dora is south of the 
Rabbit Ears Creek camp and north of US Highway 
64/87, between Clayton and Mount Dora, New 
Mexico. Mount Dora was a landmark for travelers 
on the Santa Fe Trail, although it was not as 
significant as Round Mound. (NHL) 

131. Round Mound. Round Mound is about 4 miles 
south of the intersection of US Highway 64/87 and 
New Mexico Highway 120 at Grenville, New 
Mexico. Round Mound was the major objective or 
steering point after Santa Fe Trail travelers left the 
Turkey Creek camp. The trail passed to the north of 
Round Mound, and travelers often commented on it. 
An illustration in Josiah Gregg's Commerce of the 
Prairies (1844) shows a wagon train as seen from 
the mound. Today this site is known as Mount 
Clayton. 

132. Sierra Grande. Sierra Grande, like Mount 
Dora, was a lesser landmark along this portion of 
the Santa Fe Trail. 

133. Point of Rocks - Colfax County, New 
Mexico. The Point of Rocks in Colfax County is 
on private land about 8 miles north and 2 miles east 
of a roadside park on US Highway 56. This 
landmark was a popular campsite with a nearby 
spring. There was considerable violence at this site, 
including the killing of the White family in 1849, 



103 



APPENDIXES 



and there are 11 known gravesites, only one of 
which has been identified. 

134. Rock Crossing of the Canadian River. The 

Rock Crossing of the Canadian River is on private 
land 2 miles south of US Highway 56 in Colfax 
County, New Mexico. This famous crossing was 
used by Indians from early times as well as later 
travelers on the Cimarron route. The crossing has a 
natural stone floor for a short distance only. 
Upstream it is sandy and hard to cross, while 
downstream a deep, rocky canyon makes it 
impossible to cross. This spot was considered to be 
the real entry into Mexico, and Mexican troops were 
sometimes sent this far to escort traders back to 
Santa Fe. It was also the site of several Indian raids 
on the caravans. Wagon ruts are still visible leading 
to and from this crossing. 

135. Wagon Mound. The Wagon Mound is beside 
the town of Wagon Mound, New Mexico. This 
landmark was so named because it looks like a 
covered wagon being pulled by oxen, and it was 
one of the best-known landmarks on the Santa Fe 
Trail. Wagon Mound was the last major landmark 
on the Cimarron route and trail ruts lead both 
directions from there. In 1850 a party of 10 men 
accompanying the express mail wagon on the 
Cimarron route were killed by Jicarilla Apaches near 
Wagon Mound. (NHL) 

136. Santa Clara Spring. Santa Clara Spring is on 
private land about 2 miles northwest of the town of 
Wagon Mound. At the head of a small canyon, this 
spring was used by Santa Fe Trail travelers and still 
serves as the water source for the town of Wagon 
Mound. A trail campsite developed here, and the site 
was also the focus of several Indian attacks. 

137. Pilot Knobs. The Pilot Knobs are 2 miles west 
of Wagon Mound in Mora County, New Mexico. 
They were used as a landmark for wagon trains, but 
they were not as important a landmark as the more 
visible Wagon Mound immediately to the east. 

138. Watrous Store. The Watrous store (Doolittlc 
Ranch house) is just north of the Mora River on US 
Highway 161 at Watrous. Samuel Watrous opened 
a trading store and made his home in this structure 
in 1849. Tli is store catered to Santa Fe Trail 
travelers until the very end of the trail era. The 
town was originally known as La Junta and was 
renamed Watrous when the railroad reached the 
town. (NHL) 



139. Barclay's Fort Site. The Barclay's Fort site is 
on the south bank of the Mora River, west of 1-25 
at Watrous. Alexander Barclay opened his trading 
fort here in 1849; it also served as a stage station 
for a time. (NHL) 

140. Sapello Stage Station. The Sapello stage 
station is just southwest of Watrous on the west 
bank of the Sapello River. Originally used by the 
Barlow & Sanderson Stage Company, this building 
has been somewhat remodeled to serve as a private 
residence. Wagon ruts are still visible nearby. Just 
north of the stage station is the probable junction of 
the Mountain and Cimarron routes. (NHL) 

141. Sapello River Crossing. The Sapello River 
crossing is on the present road south of the Sapello 
stage station. (NHL) 

142. Fort Union Corral. The Fort Union corral 
stands just south of the Sapello stage station at 
Watrous. This well-preserved stone corral was 
reportedly used by Fort Union troops as a livestock 
corral. (NHL) 

143. Mora. Mora is about 30 miles north of Las 
Vegas on New Mexico Highway 518. Mora is a 
predominantly Hispanic town that was indirectly 
connected to the Santa Fe Trail by a trail segment 
that linked Watrous west to Mora and then south to 
Las Vegas. Ceran St. Vrain, a former partner of the 
Bent brothers, built a mill at Mora. The mill, St. 
Vrain's former house, and his gravesite may still be 
seen. The mill was a major attraction for many 
traders who otherwise would have bypassed the 
town since the main trail was about 6 miles from 
Mora and went directly to Las Vegas. The hauling 
of milled flour from Mora to Fort Union accounted 
for a large part of the local trail traffic. 

144. La Cueva. La Cueva is 25 miles north of Las 
Vegas on New Mexico Highway 518. A mill was 
established here in the 1850s and used until 1949. 
The adobe structure and the milling equipment still 
stand, badly in need of preservation. There was 
much traffic to this mill from Fort Union for flour, 
which was distributed to military posts throughout 
the region as well as along the trail. 

145. Hermit's Peak. Hermit's Peak is between La 
Cueva and Las Vegas and can be seen from either 
New Mexico 518 or 1-25. The peak was named in 
honor of Giovanni Maria Augustini (or Augusti), 
after whom Hermit's Cave in Council Grove, 
Kansas, is also named. Augustini traveled to New 
Mexico with a trading caravan and spent three years 



104 



Appendix C: High-Potential Historic Sites and Segments 



in isolation on this peak. The peak was a landmark 
for trail travelers. 

146. Las Vegas Plaza. The town of Las Vegas 
began as a Santa Fe Trail town in 1835. The trail 
passed through the plaza, and presumably many 
traders stayed here. It was from the top of the flat- 
roofed adobe structure, between numbers 210-218 on 
the north side of the plaza, that Brig. Gen. Stephen 
W. Kearny claimed the New Mexico territory for the 
United States in 1846. 

147. Kearny Gap. Kearny Gap is 2 miles south of 
Las Vegas and west of 1-25. Also called Puerto del 
Norte, this pass was little used by Santa Fe Trail 
traffic prior to the Mexican War. Wagon ruts west 
of Kearny Gap indicate that it must have been used 
extensively by freight wagons after the Mexican 
War. 

148. Puertocito Pedregosa. After leaving Las 
Vegas, travelers had to find an easy pass through 
the high ridge of hills. Two passes within a few 
miles were probably used, and the Puertocito 
Pedregosa was probably the most used. It is north 
of the railroad tracks and 1-25. 

149. Tecolote. The town of Tecolote was founded 
at the Tecolote River crossing during the Santa Fe 
Trail era. The Tecolote Creek crossing is 12 miles 
south of Las Vegas on 1-25. This crossing was used 
well into the 20th century, and it is still visible. 
Wagon ruts in the hill to the south attest to the 
intensity of traffic. 

150. Starvation Peak (Bernal Hill). Starvation Peak 
is about 5 miles southwest of Tecolote. Also known 
as Bernal Hill, this peak was a landmark for Santa 
Fe Trail travelers. Near this hill the trail swung to 
the west, and at this point were Bernal Spring and 
for a time a stage station. 

151. San Miguel del Vado. San Miguel del Vado 
is south of 1-25 and about 26 miles southwest of 
Las Vegas. San Miguel was one of the first places 
where caravans crossed the Pecos River, and it was 
the first Hispanic settlement on the trail in New 
Mexico. For a time San Miguel was a port of entry, 
and traders often camped here. After Las Vegas was 
settled, San Miguel ceased to be important as a trail 
town and was bypassed. The old church at San 
Miguel was present throughout the trail period, and 
it still stands, although it has been remodeled. The 
plaza at San Miguel was formed by adjoining adobe 
houses and could be closed for defense against 



Indian raids. Some of the houses are now gone, but 
the outline of the plaza can still be seen. (NR) 

152. Glorieta Mesa. Glorieta Mesa runs west from 
the Pecos River for 25 miles along the south side of 
1-25. The mesa served as a landmark on the Santa 
Fe Trail. The trail followed the valley along the 
north side of the mesa for 25 miles and then 
crossed Glorieta Pass to reach Santa Fe. 

153. San Jose del Vado. San Jose del Vado is 
about 28 miles southwest of Las Vegas, in San 
Miguel County and south of 1-25. This was a 
Mexican community on the west bank of the Pecos 
River. The adobe houses were built around the 
square, which could be closed for defense in times 
of Indian raids. The route of the Santa Fe Trail 
through San Jose was shorter than through San 
Miguel, and after Las Vegas was settled, this route 
came into greater use, and San Miguel subsequently 
declined as a trail town. The Pecos River crossing 
site cannot be seen today, but it is believed to be 
near the old bridge. Many of the old houses around 
the square remain. 

154. Kozlowski's Stage Station. Kozlowski's stage 
station is about 3.4 miles north of 1-25 on New 
Mexico Highway 63, on the former Kozlowski ranch 
(today known as the Forked Lightning Ranch). This 
was a trading ranch and stage station on the Santa 
Fe Trail, and it was known for its excellent food. 
Part of the ranch house and stage station make up 
the present-day ranch headquarters. The Kozlowski 
ranch also figured in the Civil War battles at 
Glorieta Pass, serving as Union headquarters before 
that engagement on March 28, 1862. (NHL) 

155. Kozlowski's Spring. Kozlowski's Spring is 
north of the stage station on the north side of a 
creek. Travelers developed a campsite here, and this 
site was later selected as the location for 
Kozlowski's trading ranch. (NHL) 

156. Pecos National Monument. Pecos National 
Monument is on New Mexico Highway 63, north 
of 1-25. This is the site of the Pecos Pueblo, which 
was the easternmost pueblo visited by Francisco 
Coronado in 1541. The pueblo was still inhabited 
when the Santa Fe Trail opened in 1821, but it was 
abandoned about 1838. The abandoned pueblo was 
used as a campsite by trail travelers. The pueblo 
was well known and often mentioned in the journals 
of trail travelers. Ruts of the trail are present. (NHL) 

157. Apache Canyon. Apache Canyon is at the 
western end of Glorieta Pass and near Johnson's 



105 



APPENDIXES 



ranch site on 1-25. Once a narrow wagon gap on 
the Santa Fe Trail, the canyon was enlarged during 
construction of the Santa Fe Railway and 1-25. 
Governor Manuel Armijo fortified this gap in 1846 
to prevent U.S. forces from reaching Santa Fe. He 
withdrew without fighting. The Battle of Apache 
Canyon, which was the first Civil War engagement 
in the area, occurred on March 26, 1862. Union 
forces included Colorado and New Mexico 
volunteers. The Confederates were driven from the 
battlefield and many were captured. A small bridge 
in Apache Canyon (the remains of which may be 
seen today) was constructed by soldiers in the 
1850s, and it figured in the Battle of Apache 
Canyon. When retreating Confederates crossed this 
bridge, they cut it and dropped the decking into the 
narrow ravine below, believing that would stop the 
pursuing Union soldiers. Mounted Union troops were 
ordered to jump their horses across the gap, and all 
but one made it. Both sides were reinforced the next 
day, preparatory to the major engagement near 
Pigeon's ranch on March 28. (NHL) 

158. Glorieta Pass. Glorieta Pass is on 1-25 
between the Glorieta Mesa and the Sangre de Cristo 
Mountains, just west of Glorieta. In use by Indians 
since ancient times, this was not an easy pass to 
traverse; but because of the intensity of use, it was 
constantly improved by both Santa Fe Trail travelers 
and the U.S. Army. Kearny's Army of the West 
marched unopposed through this pass in 1846 on its 
way to Santa Fe. Later, the railroad built through 
this pass to reach Lamy. (NHL) 

159. Pigeon's Ranch and Glorieta Battlefield. 

Pigeon's ranch is on New Mexico 50, about 3.4 
mile southeast of the 1-25 exit at Glorieta in Santa 
Fe County. This ranch was founded by Alexander 
Valle and was a stage station on the Santa Fe Trail 
on the eastern side of Glorieta Pass. A section of 
the original ranch house remains today. The Civil 
War Battle of Glorieta Pass was fought on March 
28, 1862, about 0.5 mile west of the ranch. The 
Confederate forces initially drove the Union troops 
from the battlefield, which extended across the Santa 
Fe Trail. As the Confederates were apparently 
winning this battle, other Union forces raced across 
the top of Glorieta Mesa to capture and destroy the 
Confederate supply train at Johnson's ranch. This 
proved to be the decisive blow, and the Confederate 
forces were soon driven from New Mexico. (NHL) 

160. Johnson's Ranch Site. The Johnson's ranch 
site is on the western side of Glorieta Pass at the 
town of Canoncito, north of 1-25. Founded by A. P. 
Johnson in 1858, this ranch was a trading ranch and 



stage station on the Santa Fe Trail. In March 1862, 
while Johnson was absent, Confederate forces used 
the ranch as their headquarters during the Battle of 
Glorieta Pass. Nothing remains of this ranch today, 
but the town of Canoncito is located on the site. 
(NHL) 

161. Santa Fe Plaza. The plaza is in the middle of 
Santa Fe and was the traditional end of the Santa Fe 
Trail for westbound travelers. (NHL) 

162. Palace of the Governors. The Palace of the 
Governors is on the north side of the Santa Fe 
Plaza. Built in 1610, it served as the seat of 
government in New Mexico for 300 years. After 
occupying New Mexico for the United States in 
1846, Kearny raised the U.S. flag over the palace 
and took up residence inside. It is now houses the 
Museum of New Mexico. (NHL) 

163. Fort Marcy. Fort Marcy was built on the hill 
overlooking the city of Santa Fe in 1846, and some 
features are still visible. This was the headquarters 
for troops in New Mexico until Fort Union was 
built in 1851 to get the troops out of the Santa Fe 
environment. 



MOUNTAIN ROUTE 
New Mexico Sites 

164. Tiptonville. Tiptonville is northwest of 
Watrous, near New Mexico Highway 161. The small 
community grew up around the home of William 
Tipton. The Tipton home is gone, but the few 
remaining buildings here are believed to date from 
the Santa Fe Trail era. (NHL) 

165. Fort Union National Monument. Fort Union 
National Monument is 8 miles northwest of the town 
of Watrous on New Mexico Highway 161, near the 
junction of the Cimarron and Mountain routes. Fort 
Union was the foremost military post on the Santa 
Fe Trail during the period 1851-91, and for a time 
it was the largest American military post in the 
Southwest. Founded primarily to protect the trail, the 
original structures had already deteriorated by the 
Civil War, and a star-shaped fortification was built. 
After the Civil War, a third Fort Union was 
completed, which included a garrison and traditional 
post, regional quartermaster depot, and an arsenal on 
the site of the first fort. The adobe ruins of the third 
fort and extensive Santa Fe Trail ruts comprise the 
bulk of the national monument. 



106 



Appendix C: High-Potential Historic Sites and Segments 



166. Ocate Crossing. The Ocate crossing is north 
of New Mexico Highway 120, 14.5 miles west of 
Wagon Mound and 1 mile north on a ranch road. 
This was a watering point and campsite, and wagon 
ruts are still visible on both sides of the crossing. 
This route was heavily used during and after the 
Civil War, and it was often mentioned by trail 
travelers. Kearny's Army of the West crossed here 
in 1846 and camped nearby. 

167. Lucien Maxwell House. The Lucien Maxwell 
house in Rayado is on New Mexico 21, 12 miles 
south of Cimarron. Rayado was started from a Santa 
Fe Trail campsite by Lucien Maxwell in 1848. 
Rayado was the point where the Mountain route and 
two of its side trails rejoined. There was a military 
camp at Rayado in the early 1850s to help protect 
this part of the Mountain route. 

168. Cimarron Plaza and Well. The Cimarron 
Plaza and well are one block east of New Mexico 
Highway 21. Santa Fe Trail wagon trains entered the 
plaza from the east after crossing the Cimarron 
River. On the opposite side of the plaza was 
Maxwell's mansion, built in 1864; it burned in 1885. 
(NR) 

169. St. James Hotel. The St. James Hotel is on 
the east side of New Mexico Highway 21 in 
Cimarron. This hotel was built next to the Santa Fe 
Trail in its later days and was reportedly a hangout 
for outlaws. The building has been restored and 
operates today as a hotel and restaurant 

170. Aztec Mill. Aztec Mill is in the southwest 
corner of Cimarron. It was built in the 1860s to 
provide flour to the Maxwell ranch and the Jicarilla 
Apache Indian Reservation, as well as Santa Fe 
Trail travelers. Today it is operated as a museum. 

171. Swink's Gambling Hall. Swink's Gambling 
Hall is at the south edge of Cimarron. Built in the 
1870s, it was a saloon and dancing hall during the 
later trail days. The building has been remodeled. 
(NR) 

172. Clifton House. The Clifton house site is south 
of Raton on 1-25 and west of the junction with US 
64. This house was a trading post and stage station, 
as well as a popular stop on the Mountain route. 
The Canadian River crossing is nearby. Only the 
remains of one wall are still standing at this site. 

173. Willow Springs. Willow Springs is at 545 
Railroad Avenue in Raton, New Mexico. This spring 
was at the south end of Raton Pass and was the site 



of a campsite and stage station. The spring is now 
capped and used as a well by the current property 
owner. It was the landmark around which the town 
of Raton developed. 

174. Raton Pass. Raton Pass sits astride the 
Colorado-New Mexico border. This pass was 
difficult to cross until the Army made improvements 
during the Mexican War, but it was not widely used 
until "Uncle Dick" Wootton started improving it in 
1864 as part of his toll road. The improvements 
prompted many travelers, including the stagecoach 
line, to switch to the Mountain route instead of 
following the Cimarron route. The pass today is the 
route of the railroad and 1-25. (NHL) 



Colorado Sites 

175. Wootton Ranch. The Wootton ranch is near 
1-25 at the north entrance to Raton Pass, on the 
Colorado-New Mexico state line. This ranch is 
famous as the home of Richens Lacy "Uncle Dick" 
Wootton, who owned and operated the Raton Pass 
toll road. The ranch house was a copy of the 
Hough-Baca house in Trinidad, which was destroyed 
and then rebuilt by James Ownby in 1905 from 
plans available. The toll gate was near the ranch 
house. 

176. Cruz Torres Grave. The Cruz Torres grave 
is on the Wootton ranch at Raton Pass. Cruz Torres 
was murdered near the ranch and was buried south 
of the ranch house. 

177. Fisher's Peak (Raton Mountain). Fisher's 
Peak overlooks the entrance to Raton Pass between 
Trinidad, Colorado, and Raton, New Mexico. It was 
a landmark for Santa Fe Trail travelers, jutting out 
from the surrounding mesa. 

178. Hough-Baca House. The Hough-Baca house is 
on US Highway 350 in Trinidad. It was built by a 
Santa Fe Trail merchant, John Hough, and later sold 
to the Baca family. The Santa Fe Trail passed near 
the house, and several of its present furnishings 
were brought west on the trail. The structure is now 
a state-operated museum. (NR) 

179. Spanish Peaks. The Spanish Peaks are west- 
northwest of Trinidad. They can be seen from great 
distances along the Mountain route, and they served 
as landmarks for trail travelers. 

180. Hole-in-the-Rock Site. Hole-in-the-Rock is 
north of Thatcher. The name for this once 



107 



APPENDIXES 



well-known landmark comes from a hole in the bed 
of Timpas Creek that was deep enough to retain 
water when the rest of the creek was dry. The 
railroad built a stone dam below the hole to get 
water for locomotive boilers. Over time, the entire 
impoundment silted in to the height of the spillway. 
A stage station was located near this site. 

181. Iron Spring. Iron Spring is 11 miles west of 
Timpas, Colorado, on US Highway 350, and then 
1 mile south on a gravel road. It was an important 
water supply on the trail and a stage station; it was 
also the scene of several Indian attacks. Trail ruts 
are still visible near the spring; a few building 
remains are nearby. 

182. Arkansas River Crossing. The Arkansas River 
crossing was at the present-day site of La Junta, 
Colorado, and may have been one of several 
crossings in this area. Susan Magoffin, among 
others, used this crossing. 

183. Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site. 

Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site is north of 
the Arkansas River, 8 miles east of La Junta on 
Colorado 194. The fort was an active trading post 
from 1833 to 1849, and it was of national 
importance to the opening of the American West. 
This fort has been faithfully reconstructed and is 
open to the public. (NHL) 

184. Boggsville. Boggsville is about 2 miles south 
of Las Animas on Colorado 101. This small com- 
plex of two trading stores, owned separately by John 
W. Prowers and Thomas O. Boggs, was a stage stop 
on the Santa Fe Trail. Both buildings remain today 
in a deteriorated but stabilized state. (NR) 

185. New Fort Lyon. New Fort Lyon is 1 mile 
south of US Highway 50 on Colorado 183, east of 
Las Animas. Active from 1867 to 1889, this post 
replaced the Old Fort Lyon and helped to guard the 
Santa Fe Trail and later the railroad line. The fort is 
now a veterans hospital, and some of the original 
buildings have been remodeled for use as part of the 
hospital complex. 

186. Old Fort Lyon. Old Fort Lyon is less than 1 
mile west of Bent's New Fort. Originally called Fort 
Wise, this fort was built by the Army in 1860. A 
treaty with the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians was 
signed here in 1861, but it was not honored by 
either side. Fort Lyon was deeply involved in the 
Indian troubles of this region during and after the 
Civil War. This fort was relocated in 1867, and 
today only a few foundations of the officers' 



quarters remain. Santa Fe Trail wagon ruts are still 
visible north of this site. 

187. Bent's New Fort. Bent's New Fort is 1 mile 
west of the Prowers-Bent county line on US 50, 
then 1 mile south on Prowers County Road 35, 0.2 
mile east, and 0.5 mile south. This fort was operated 
by William Bent from 1853 to 1860, when he leased 
the site to the U.S. Army. Only foundation ruins 
ouUine the post. 

188. Old Granada Site. The Old Granada site is 
about 3 miles east of the town of Granada, south 
of the Arkansas River and on the route of the Santa 
Fe Railway. This was an end-of-track town on the 
railroad from 1873 to 1875. The railroad carried 
most of the freight of the Santa Fe Trail to this 
point, where it was loaded onto wagons for the trip 
through Emery Gap to New Mexico. After the 
railroad was extended farther west, the site was 
abandoned, and the new town of Granada was laid 
out a few miles to the west. 



Kansas Sites 

189. Fort Aubry and Aubry Crossing. The site of 
Fort Aubry is 3 miles east of Syracuse on US 
Highway 50, then 0.5 mile south on a rural road, 
0.5 mile east on a rural road, and very near a 
farmstead on the south side of the road. The Aubry 
cutoff, opened by Francis X. Aubry in 1850, became 
an important route from the Arkansas River to the 
Oklahoma Panhandle because water supplies were 
more reliable along this route than along La 
Jornada. The Aubry crossing of the Arkansas River, 
approximately 3 miles downstream from the site of 
Fort Aubry, was used more than the Upper Crossing 
near Lakin, Kansas, and it rivaled the traffic at the 
Middle Crossings for about 10 years. The impor- 
tance of this route led to the establishment of two 
military posts in 1865, Fort Aubry and Camp 
Nichols (in the Oklahoma Panhandle). First 
established as Camp Wynkoop in 1864, the name 
Fort Aubry was assigned in 1865. The fort was 
abandoned in 1866 and the site used for a stage 
station. The Aubry crossing has disappeared, but 
wagon ruts still delineate the trail here, and the 
spring still exists near the fort site. Remains of the 
fort consist mainly of three clusters of dugout 
depressions. 

190. Indian Mound. Indian Mound is approximately 
5 miles southwest of Lakin, Kansas. This is a 
natural landmark that was most likely used as a 



108 



Appendix C: High-Potential Historic Sites and Segments 



lookout point by Indians and traders. The view from 
this mound is still impressive today. 

191. Chouteau's Island. Chouteau's Island has 
disappeared because of erosion by the Arkansas 
River, but it was located due south of Indian Mound 
during the Santa Fe Trail era. The name Chouteau's 
Island predated the trail, and the area became known 
as the Upper Crossing of the Arkansas River. The 
official survey of the trail went to this point before 
crossing the Arkansas River, and it was here in 
1829 that the first military escort on the trail, 
comprised of troops of the Sixth Infantry led by 
Bennet Riley, camped while the trader caravan 
proceeded to Santa Fe. At that time the Arkansas 
River was the international boundary. 

192. Upper Crossing. The Upper Crossing of the 
Arkansas River stretched from about a mile east of 
present-day Lakin, Kansas, to Chouteau's Island. 
This crossing was on the shortest route between the 
Arkansas and Cimarron rivers. Even though there 
were sand hills to negotiate, there was also a natural 
valley to follow for part of the distance. This 
crossing was used less than the Middle Crossings 
but much more than the Lower Crossing. 

193. Kearny County Historical Society (Bentrup) 
Ruts. Located 3 miles west of Deerfield on US 
Highway 50 is a fine set of parallel ruts ascending 
a hill to the east. These are on the north side of the 
highway and marked with a Kansas State Historical 
Society marker. Paul Bentrup donated the site to the 
county historical society. 

194. Point of Rocks/Pawnee Fort - Finney 
County, Kansas. This Point of Rocks is about 2.5 
miles west of Pierceville and is on the north side of 
a road that parallels the Arkansas River and the 
Santa Fe Railway tracks. This is a minor landmark 
on the Santa Fe Trail, but it is a reference point in 
several travel accounts. 



109 



Table C-l: High -Potential Route Segments 



County/State 

Main Corridor 

Lyon County, Kansas 

Marion County, Kansas 
Rice County, Kansas 



Length (in miles) and Location 



1.62 - north of Allen 
1.38 - north of Admire 
2.50 - southwest of Durham 
0.70 - west of Chase 
6.20 



Cimarron Route 

Morton County, Kansas 
Gray County, Kansas 
Cimarron County, Oklahoma 



Union County, New Mexico 



Colfax County, New Mexico 



Mora County, New Mexico 



2.50 - Cimarron National Grassland 
0.88 - southwest of Ingalls 
1.38 - east of Wolf Mountain 
2.75 - west of Autograph Rock 
1.25 - south of Camp Nichols 
6.62 - McNees Crossing 

20.88 - Turkey Creek camp 
4.88 - south branch of trail 
6.50 - Rabbit Ears Creek camp 

14.00 - Round Mound 

21.38 - Point of Rocks 
5.62 - south branch of trail 
9.00 - northeast of US 56 
1.25 - Rock Crossing 
6.88 - southwest of Rock Crossing 

1 1 .62 - northeast of Wagon Mound 
7.75 - southwest of Wagon Mound 
4.00 - Watrous 
129.14 



Mountain Route 

Kearny County, Kansas 

Las Animas County, Colorado 

Colfax County, New Mexico 

Colfax and Mora Counties, New Mexico 

Mora County, New Mexico 



San Miguel County, New Mexico 



1.62 
7.88 
3.00 
6.75 
6.75 

11.50 
8.00 
2.75 

48.25 



west of Lakin 

Hoehne to Model 

Clifton house 

south of Rayado 

north of Ocate 

Ocate to Fort Union 

Fort Union to Watrous (La Junta) 

San Miguel del Vado 



Note: Segments that no longer retain remnants of the historic route or scene but that offer potential for 
recreational use or commemorative marking are not included in this list. 



110 



APPENDIX D: MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING 

BETWEEN 

THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

AND 

THE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 

FOR 

MUTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF PLANT MATERIALS FOR REVEGETATION 



The National Park Service (NPS) administers the National Park System and manages the units of the system 
to conserve their scenic, natural, cultural, and wildlife resources in such a manner as to leave them unimpaired 
for the enjoyment of future generations. The NPS also provides technical assistance to Federal, State and local 
resource managers. 

The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) provides national leadership in the conservation and wise use of soil, 
water, and related resources through a balanced cooperative program that protects, restores, and improves these 
resources. 

As the NPS carries out its responsibilities, improvements are needed which require revegetation of disturbed 
areas with indigenous vegetation. Because many of the plants needed for revegetation exist only in their native 
stand and propagation techniques for their reproduction is lacking, returning disturbed sites to their 
pre-disturbed condition is extremely difficult. 

The SCS operates plant materials centers for the purpose of developing needed plant materials and methods 
for their propagation and use to help meet the mission of the agency. Similar revegetation needs to those of 
the NPS are part of continuing program activities at several plant materials centers. 

There are opportunities for the NPS and the SCS to cooperate in the development of procedures for using 
plant materials that will assist in the revegetation of disturbed sites in NPS sites with indigenous species. 
Cooperative efforts can: (1) promote better resource management and protection; (2) improve public service; 
(3) provide better understanding of both agencies' goals, objectives, and programs; (4) accelerate the 
development of needed plant materials for appropriate use on both public and private land; (5) provide a cost- 
effective means for coping with resource management decisions; and (6) advance the state of the reclamation 
and revegetation art. 

I. PURPOSE 

The purpose of this Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is to: 

A. Improve public service and management of natural and cultural resources through cooperative agency 
efforts. 

B. Promote the early identification of opportunities for the NPS and SCS to cooperate in the development 
of needed plant materials and methods of propagating and reestablishment. 

C. Establish guidelines that will foster this cooperation at every level of both agencies. 

D. Cooperate in such a manner as to raise the public understanding of the mission of both agencies. 

E. Establish a coordinating philosophy and policy under which more specific working agreements may be 
developed to foster plant propagation for use by specific parks. 

F. Promote exchange of information on plants and propagation innovations relative to new technology and 
plant management. 



Ill 



APPENDIXES 



G. Study and develop reproductive techniques of endangered species where populations may be indigenous 
to specific parks. 

n. AUTHORITY 

This MOU is made under the authority of the Economy Act of 1932 (31 U.S.C. 1535). 

m. scope 

The provisions of this MOU extend to those activities of the NPS and SCS that impact the need for and the 
development of revegetation technology that might have application to NPS sites. These activities include but 
are not limited to: 

A. Short-range and long-range selection and development of needed plant materials for revegetation by SCS 
plant materials centers nationally. 

B. Short-range and long-range NPS development plans or past NPS use practices that might trigger the 
need for revegetation technology. 

C. Development of needed methods and practices to enhance maintenance of endangered species. 

IV. IT IS MUTUALLY AGREED TO: 

A. Designate a senior level point of contact (POC) within the national headquarters to assist in identifying, 
coordinating and expediting the exchange of information regarding the need for plant materials technology by 
both agencies, and assist in arranging interagency agreements between individual NPS sites and SCS plant 
materials centers to address these needs where there is a mutual interest. 

B. Designate a National Technical Advisor (NTA) that assists the POC in developing and expediting 
specific interagency agreements between individual NPS sites and SCS plant materials centers, as appropriate, 
to address specific revegetation needs. The NTAs from both agencies will develop a guideline document to 
be used for development of individual park plant materials agreements and will coordinate all activities under 
the guidance of the POCs. 

C. Designate members of joint technical working groups in broad geographic areas to identify mutual 
interests, assist in structuring Interagency Guidelines (IAGs) to meet multiple National Park System unit and 
plant materials centers objectives, review project accomplishments, assist in distribution of technical 
information, and define areas of future cooperation. 

D. Provide technical reports from any joint studies as well as proposed press releases or other public 
affairs information related to joint efforts or projects for review by the other prior to release. 

E. POCs will meet on a regular basis to identify problems of common interest, advance and promote joint 
programs, and provide coordination in planning. NTAs and additional staff may be invited to these meetings 
to provide appropriate technical expertise for review and comment. The POCs may convene ad hoc 
committees, as appropriate, to address specific issues. 

F. Reference this MOU in IAGs and other supplementary and/or implementing documents so that details 
of cooperative efforts carried out between the two agencies are adequately documented. 



112 



Appendix D: Memorandum of Understanding 



V. THE NPS AGREES TO: 

A. Advise Regional, Denver Service Center and park employees of the existence of this MOU, and of the 
opportunity for cooperation with SCS for the development of needed plant materials technology. 

B. Identify from their resource management and long-range development plans work that may create the 
need for plant materials. 

C. Cooperate where applicable in coordinating with the SCS to develop park specific plant materials for 
reclamation revegetation efforts. 

VI. SCS AGREES TO: 

A. Advise plant materials centers of the existence of this MOU, and of the opportunity for cooperation 
with NPS for the development of plant materials and plant materials technology specifically designed to meet 
NPS needs. 

B. Support IAGs, by providing resources and/or carrying out the provisions of IAGs, and provide technical 
expertise for performance, review or consultation in areas of mutual interest, subject to program priorities and 
budget constraints. 

C. Provide NPS with financial and program information consistent with NPS management and financial 
accounting systems; and 

D. Maintain consistency with NPS program and administrative management requirements, such as the 
non-use of exotic species on NPS land. 

m 

Vn. AGREEMENT TERMS AND REVIEW 

This agreement shall remain in force for a term of 5 years from the date of the last signature and is 
renewable after appropriate review and determination of effectiveness. This agreement can be terminated by 
either agency upon 90 days' written notice. The NPS Director and the SCS Chief will periodically review the 
agreement and recommend any modifications or adjustments that would be desirable. 

Nothing in this agreement will be construed as limiting or affecting the legal authorities of the NPS Director 
or the SCS Chief, or as binding upon NPS or SCS to perform beyond their respective authorities, or to require 
any of the parties to assume or expend funds in excess of available appropriations. 



DIRECTOR CHIEF 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 



DATE DATE 



(Note: This understanding was signed on March 1, 1989. Currently, individual agreements are being developed 
by the National Park Service for specific actions.) 

113 



APPENDIX E: TRAIL USE GUIDELINES 



COMPATIBILITY OF RECREATIONAL USES ALONG ADJACENT TRAILS 



u 

< 

o So 

a o 9 

PC PC OS 



HIKING 

HORSEBACK 
RIDING 

WAGONS 

AUTOS 



on 
Z 

o 
o 



on 

g 

D 

< 





• 


* 


a 


t 




• 


(5 


i 


• 




(3 


(3 


(3 


(5 





1) Hiking, horseback riding, and wagon use are 
highly compatible 

2) Hiking, horseback riding, and wagon use are 
not compatible with auto tours; however, 
occasional glimpses of automobiles would 
probably not detract from visitor experiences 
(for example, at trailheads). 



COMPATIBILITY 


• 


Excellent 


£ 


High 


Q 


Moderate 


(3 


Low 


O 


None 



Criteria: 



Sense of solitude, sharing 
amenities, safety, noise, dust, 
visual intrusion, historical 
authenticity of experience, potential 
to enhance experience 



114 



Appendix E: Trail Use Guidelines 



COMPATIBILITY OF USES ALONG THE SAME TRAIL OR ROUTE 



HIKING 

HORSEBACK 
RIDING 

WAGONS 

AUTOS 



u 
o So z 
s 59 ^ 



< 





o 


o 


o 


o 




• 


o 


o 


• 




o 


o 


o 


o 





1) Horseback riding and wagon use could occur 
on the same trail. 

2) Hiking and horseback riding could be 
combined where horseback use is slight. 



COMPATIBILITY 
£ High 

taMri Moderate 

Q Low 



Criteria: 



Safety, trail surface 



115 



APPENDIXES 



Trail Maintenance Guidelines: 
Trail Surfaces for Various Recreational Uses 

Parallel Recreation Trails* 



Hiking Trails 



Horse and 
Wagon Trails 



Historic Ruts or 
Remnants 



High-Intensity Use 
Long Trails 

Short Trails 

Low-Intensity Use 
Long Trails 



Short Trails 



Soil cement, asphalt, 
pea gravel 

Soil cement, asphalt, 
pea gravel, boardwalks 



Pea gravel, existing 
surface if well drained 
and durable 



Same as above 



Crushed gravel with 
road base 

Crushed gravel with 
road base 



Crushed gravel with 
road base, existing 
surface if well drained 
and durable 



Same as above 



Not applicable 
Not applicable 



Revegetate surface as 
needed; possibly allow 
occasional walking in 
ruts if vegetation would 
prevent erosion 

Same as above 



* Accessibility for mobility impaired persons will require at least a 3-foot-wide maintained surface that is hard, 
level, and well-drained. The grade cannot exceed 1:12 (8.33 percent) for more than a 40-foot run before a 5- 
foot long/wide level rest area is provided. If the trail is not paved, side slope drainage will need to be provided 
under the trail, not across it, to prevent erosion. Waterbars cannot be used on an accessible trail. 



116 



APPENDIX F: RECOMMENDED SIGNS 



3.5" or 9" or 18" or 24" 




Uniform marker 





^: 



Recommended auto tour route sign incorporating uniform marker 




X 



X 



Recommended auto tour/original trail route sign incorporating uniform marker 






Recommended auto tour/trail crossing sign incorporating uniform marker, to be used 
only where deemed appropriate and safe (no use on interstates allowed) 



S31IIAI 



968 



90Z 



911 










CC 












o 






p 




_j 
< 

i- 


DC 

LU 

1- 
Z 


< 

o 
o 


O 

cc 


< 




o 


LU 

X 


o 

CM 


5 


LL 
O 




o 


LL 


<3- 

CM 


Q 


U_ 




1- 


o 








</> 








(3 




I 


z 






O 

_j 




_J 


UJ 

Suj 








< 


HO 






in 




z 


< ^ 






(3 
< 

Lit 

_l 


LU 

1- 
3 


o 

< 

z 


UJ LU 
Q <*> 

CO* 

LU CC 






o 

DC 


UJ 

Li. 


< 0- 






_J 


DC 


< 

1- 
z 


< 

Q Z 






< 


Z) 


uj o 
l— — 






E< 


< 


r£ 






h- 


1— 


CO 


Z>Z 







Os 



LU 



UJ 



S31IIAI 968 



UJ 

X 

Q •" 
UJ 

go 

CO < 

>^ 

£ UJ -J 

£ o o 

O Z DC 
X < rr 

lutO 
o Q h 

5 2 ° 

2 3 < 

LU 

I- 

o 

z 



H 
Z 

U 

w 

z 

< 

| 

OS 

w 
O 

c 
u 

o 

aa 
Z 

o 

p— 1 

CM 

o 

e 






Q 
Z 

a. 
a. 

< 



u 

cs 

< 



*•£ 

p- 3 

.2 p* 

&| 

B, H 

P.TJ 



0. «3 



5 2 

a h£ 
P. ™ .- 

«5 00 * 

8 § o 
►* 5 ^ 

« •a m 



o '3 

e fa 



a s> 
g 8 

oca; 



M g, 



-o 


5 


a 


a 


« 


o 


3 


XI 


£ 


a> 


re 


oo 


s 




ft. 


*- 

u 


rd 


Z 


a, 
5 


re 


3 


a 


s 


QQ 


_o 


re 










3 

> 


s 


3 


u 


"a 


o 


Q 


E 


<*- 



8£ 



si 

qj a 
g u 
P. 45 



•a « '„> 
.•3 -° ~ 
§-o« 

'"a m 

22 p< m 
3.2.5 

o o pi, 
P. > <u 
x u (U 

u -o 4* 



g 3^ 

C O <U 

g^ .a 

s^ ^ 

it; 2 

e « § 

45 a '?? 

» fl 8 



a 
o 




'3 
h 


3 








4) 


re 


> 


4= 


1- 

re 










tfl 


o 


lM 


CO 

a, 
2 


'a 


re 

C 





13 
re 


c 
SS 


c 

o 


4= 
fctl 
3 


're 


.5 

T3 


c 

P. 




1 




i- 








O 


o 




— 1 


c 


&ii 


t-i) 


3 


u 


a 


C 


o 


-D 

5 
a 


c 
re 

2 


a 

PL, 



I &>% 

45 3 2 
o «- q 

<u .5 o 
> 2 o 

£ I~ 

(X E 



a -a 

U 1) 

E S 



•5 -o a 



e j5 



U U 4) O 

o 



« - 2 



O OOfi 

u O C 

o fc. O 

K) CX O 



3 

3 4) 

CVS 

4) 4) 

re Ci, 

° c 
b .5 

a 

f s 


re 


o 

re 

re 
(5 

E 
<u 

Gfi 
O 


4) 

S 
u 

X 

o 


U 
re 

GA 

M 

u 

> 
c 

1 


really managed 
ied sites or segmen 
cost-share basis). 


1 § 


Cu 


US 

u 


u 

c 

4) 


OJ 

E 

re 


and L 
certif 
(on a 


0* re 


o 


£ 


re 


OO 



a 



o,'a 

OS 

42 3 

"^ d 

> .!5 

u re 
Q E 



■a re oj 

■E Si g- 

^ s « 



a 



Q. C 
09 e u 

4) t OD 

'SO 13 

3 B 45 
o 4> y 
re x; ™ 

1*5 -t3 4) 



g.^r 



X) 3 

if a 

2 - 
II 



ag 



u re 

Q E 



C 4) 

8 a 

45 

a « 

re ^ 
4) E 

J2-S 



4) 

P, « 

u § 

(J O uj 



re 



2f> O 43 
re ;** 

45^ 2 

o i-, a 

re 4) x; 

WOW 





4) re 

> c 

O re 

•S S 

w 4) 

e .a 

oo p. 



o 
5. 

CI- 
TS 3 
C <« 

2§ 
II 



c 


C^} 


E 

Si, 


4D 


U 

of; 


re 


O 


■s 


v. 


'. 


4J 


iyi 


^5 





IA 






4) M 

j2 o 



4) - 

> .a 

u re 

Q E 



•C « 

(A (J 

ea i-i 

I 8 
.2 -5 



b o M 





re 
o 


re 
45 


re 






4= 


C 




re 




re 

45 


u 


o 


c/3 




4) 
> 
O 

-re 



s_; a 



w 




1 


4) 

oo 


Ed 


4»S 


a 
C 
< 


4> re 

O 




C -2 


g 


4> re 


<.2 


us 




u 


—3 re 


p 


2Z 


se 


4> 


< 


u 


2. 


u- 



GO 

O 

g .2 

OCtU 

41 k* 
-O 4) 

^^ 

•S o 






UQ 




(H 


> 


O 


u. 


QJ 


u 

00 


.E 




Oil 




iS 






-T3 


l*-l 


r^; 


c 


^ 


Gfl 

P. 



§ u 



2 a 

re v- 

> o 

« re 
«" 5 *2 

*- O "O 

H re -r-, 
5 N "3 

° '5 £ 

*o re 
C &0T3 
re b* c 



123 



9E 
a o 

5§ 

Hi 3 

d U 

■_ u 

OS 0£ 



^P 



s. 


y; 


i 




u 


^ 


2 & 


fcd 


c 


U 


2 





5 


< 


-J 


> 


a 


.< 


s- 


s 


s 


:- 


£ 


c 


a 




a. 


i 


= 


c 


E 


5 £ 



■5 o 

'5 .'9 

.£ J> o 

■^ *-• L- 

!s? to £ 

< « a 



si o 



•ill 

'3~ § 

'3 2 £ 
a* cd 
y > 



° s 

y~ ca 

.S-2 






8 £ 

C ca 



° u 

IE 

O 3 

2 E 

£ ° 



» * 6 

d g oo 



■2 IT'S 

d u to 

"3 8 g 

00 « « 



I? 



*< 



S3 °- 



i. » S 7 T7 



si 



ca 

O ca 2 

e 6 § 



■a « 



c 


a 


c 
u 

E 


CO 

o 




o 

T3 


8 

9 


'Es 


C 

ca 

u 


O 






"~J 


^ "« 










P 















*-• 










3 

.■a 


BO 


c 


T3 


> 






u 


■o 


3 


U 




o 


5 £ 
§1 




u 

c 


c 




o 






u 




i — , 


£ 


c 

3 

C 

a 

M 
.S 

i 


•s 


e W 


£ 


C/C 


a 


3 


3 


H o 

•"V c 




s 

E 


"5 
1 


cd 

.s 

WD 

rd 


ca 
Ml 

.5 

BO 

71 


s. > 


C 


j— 3 


c 


3 


c 


O a 


O 


*« 


cd 


H 




d 


U < 


U 


H 


V- 


E 




E 






"Sfc 



« a 



it 



* i > 






o .s 






:ent 
lati 
ens 










V. 3 .c 






" MCJ 






« u >■ 




o 


c u a 




> 


8^= | 




O 


* ff 




09 


<A *2 ° 






C — ° 




S 


o> ^^ -C 






p rt *• 

to Sjj "? 

<U > C 




U 




E 


^ O A 


"a 


or) 




" « ? 



.2 g 
•S c£ ( 

* o ? 

c ^: "2 

4i 00 S 

u ^ — 

£ o 2 

o ? o 
c« o c 






< 



m _ 
"O cU 



e 

0J k- 


5 




co.O 


Sq 




cS "— 


"> 








ed 




o 










'a 2 


15 




S3 






e c 


1 

cd 


U 

c 

3 
C 
U 



E 



^ E 3.-7 8 £-a 



oj rs 





3 


r~- 


o 


5 


n 




V- 


o 


a 


c 


^ 




c _ 


fi 




ty. 


3 

3 


u 




ca S 


-o 




s 


C 


o 




-> -2 
eo E? 


o 
3 


< 




-J 
> 


CA 

c 




.5 t 


U 


C 





03 

u 


3 




T3 U 

5 E 

a ° 
.s u 


E 


| 


'5 

c 

& 


5 


4 

u 
u 

c 



XI 

J S"g 
— p .a 

oo Js 

•E a w 
•5-0 

a" « y 

c^ C * 

*• c ^> 
y C — 
■owe 

£ " a 

o fe 8* 



>> 5> 







ca 


E j 






^. 





« < 




■5 


-0 


c 


ca on 




g 


~3 


— fc 




"S 


1 


C 


c/i C, 






u 


cd 






C 

u 
E 


a 
> 


B 


c -0 

E 'S 
00 _j 

i_ 





ki 


t4H 

c 




C/5 O 

4J 1) 


^s 


CiL 


Im 

O 







P3 




00 c 
ca c 


r- 


^ 


13 


i y 

E x 




O 


£ 





y 


00 


c 


3 


u 






^ 


1^. 



l ^- 


U 


c- 


c 




u 


.-2 


BO 


c 


< 


c 








a 


ca 

1- 


Z 



3 



C 

u 



o in 



..a u 

U. 00 

u 



■J 



J3 §>2lS 
O < 00 > o 



I 
< 

LA; 



u_ 



124 



< 
z 



< 
z 




.3 > Zi 

o o § 

D JJ 4) ^ d 



< 
z 



o 

Q 

C 
H 

U 

u 
ce 

C9 

< 



o 
u 



p 

se 

ft 

= 
p 



O ca 



.* C5 *J C '55 

£ > 2 ^ 

ca ^™ «- i/l 

■« 2 o '5 C 

° a * 6 

0) o o u 



£ £.2 




Z 




3 S '5! 

u o x> 
oo "fl '55 



=3 ^-i 



ft o 

eg 

6 1 

o 2 

42 «>* 

■a -j 

^ ft 

00 c3 



c 



-8 



i- ca 
<U > 

n ° "5 

£ M & 

(A -S <U 

<o 60 b 

O « w 
t-. 3 w 

3 a ca 

CA C «-i 



■3 




_ « 








1 


'£ 

o 

3 


(-0 


G C J, 

u o 2 


CO 


3 


.2 5 

c ^ 


o 
p 


prot 
etati 
righ 


G 
V 


§ 


<L> 


r a 


g access, 
s, interpr 
hment of 


<U S 


8 

8* 


f2 
> 
o 

ft 


60 £ 

U 


C3 
60 

.5 

60 

C3 


w J3 


M 


j- 


C u 

2 "5 

ca O 


s 


.5 .a .a 


cS-- 


c 
o 


1 

CJ 

ft 


CO 

E 


|a-9 


*3 v, 

*2 


ft 


CA tA 




c« o J 


ca « 


3 


3 £ 


o 


ftcS <U 


?s 



<U 00 

o a, 

CO *-■ 



.59 



•3 8 8* 



Ji-S 

K -3 "5 T3 

3 3 ° -3 

«c3§g 



u 



S- 
<u .a 

03 a> 



" «J CA 

Kg* 

c c 

cS o 

— ft 

ca 3 

Is 



ca i_ 
00 ft 



OJ 




> 




O 




X) 




ra 


o 


S 


| 




c3 


U 




g 


c7 



CA 


u 




u 






£< 


'> 




i- 






UJ 


M 


U 

< 


y ca 
• G ft 




C -3 


g 


Oj CO 


60 C 


en 




u 


— a 


P 


2Z 


ce 


6i 
<0 


ft 


ft 



01 








1-a 3 


lA 


13 




D •— .x 


ft, 


u 




60ft > 


o 


J3 










ca •- . 


CO 


c 




►* > J^ 


c 


ca 




u h !a 


UJ 




"O O = j 




i/i 




(U 00 T3 


I<H 


o 




ft ra 


o 


"3 

c 
u 

CO 


i!3 


Other 
(Forest 
and W 


in 
ft 


C 


Q 
U 


< 


E 






o 


u 








> 






ca 


c 






c^ 


O 



13 
I 

5 — 
'3 "^ 

60 £ 

^1 

S ° 
> & 
ft U 



125 



at 
£3 

W 

OS 



c 







<— 
c 


. 


3 
-C ° 

3 '*-* 




M 


£ 




.5 


9 


M 


S 


BJ3 

C 


J3 






8-5 


O 

.5 


-s 

5 


c 


.. 3 


j 


o 

3 


t- 




c 
E 


o 



•3 '3d 




.5 


u 


O "3 


sj 


X! 


Ih 


•r c 


C 


|H 


u 


s 1 

o. 6 


E 


o 
c 




c 



5 ° w 

>>* i 

.a -S ^ 



o 



33 
1/5 




o 

-9 



u 

< J 

o 



S3 



to p, 
"S J= o 

g.so 

MjU. 

< tf 8 
■a-a-s: 

h > V* 

a> i- <u _. 

0) GO ^ 







£ 






Ed 






3 






"2 


rt 






U 




"> 


j 




fl 


T3 




o l— ' 


C 




'3 T3 


o3 




I § 


iy. 






o 

c 
u 


s 




< 


s 




tH 


3 s 


o 


u 


5 p. 




> 


> ET 




c 

o 


fi u 



126 



Appendix G: Provisions for Cooperative Management 



SAMPLE MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING 
BETWEEN THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

AND THE STATE OF 

CONCERNING THE SANTA FE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 

This Memorandum of Understanding is entered into by and between the U.S. Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service ("Service"), and the State of ("State"). 

I. Authorities 

This Memorandum of Understanding is developed under the following authorities: 

A. The National Trails System Act (16 USC 1241, et seq.), as amended by Public Law 100-35 (101 
Stat. 302, 16 USC 1244 [a][15]). 

B. Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968 (42 USC 4201 et seq.). 

H. Purpose 

The purpose of this Memorandum of Understanding is to provide the basis for cooperation between the 
Service and the State to implement the Comprehensive Management and Use Plan for the Santa Fe National 
Historic Trail. 



III. Background 

Public Law 100-35 (101 Stat. 320, 16 USC 1244 [a][15]), amended the National Trails System Act ("the 
Act") to establish the Santa Fe National Historic trail ("the Trail"). The Act places responsibility for 
administering the Trail with the Secretary of the Interior ("Secretary"). Only federal lands are to be 
administered as initial protection components of the Trail; but the Act authorizes the Secretary to encourage 
and to assist State, local, or private entities in establishing, administering, and protecting those segments of 
the Trail which cross nonfederally owned lands. In furtherance of that objective, the Act allows Memoranda 
of Understanding between the Service and cooperating nonfederal agencies to be written for marking the Trail, 
establishing rights-of-way, and developing and maintaining facilities. Pursuant to the Act, the Comprehensive 
Management and Use Plan for the Trail outlines objectives and practices to be observed in the management 
of the Trail and identifies significant potential Trail components, procedures for nonfederal certification, and 

the process to mark the Trail. The Governor of the State of and appropriate State agencies 

were consulted in the preparation and approval of the Comprehensive Management and Use Plan. 

IV. Responsibilities 

The State and the Service mutually desire that the Santa Fe National Historic Trail across the State of 

be appropriately marked, administered, and managed so as to accomplish the purposes of the 

National Trails System Act. Accordingly, the State and the Service agree to carry out the following 
responsibilities for this purpose: 

A. The U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, and the State of mutually 

agree to: 

1. Establish individual coordinators within each administering agency for Trail administration 
activities. 

2. Adopt the Santa Fe National Historic Trail Comprehensive Management and Use Plan, dated 
May 1990, and manage the trail's resources as appropriate and feasible. 



127 



APPBMDDCES 



3. Keep each other informed and consult periodically on management problems pertaining to the 
Trail, including consultation with the Santa Fe National Historic Trail Advisory Council. 

4. Subject to the availability of funds and personnel, provide assistance at the request of either party 
for the planning and development of facilities, completion of environmental or other compliance 
requirements, acquisition of land, and the administration of the Trail. 

B. The Service agrees to: 

1. Provide the State with an initial set of Trail markers in accordance with the marking program 
established in the Comprehensive Management and Use Plan and authorize highway department 
use of the logo for appropriate directional signs. 

2. Publish a notice of the Trail route in the Federal Register. 

3. Upon request and as funds permit, provide technical assistance for planning access, protection, 
facilities, interpretation, and other aspects of management of the Trail. 

4. Support efforts that promote the whole trail as a single, integrated system. 

C. The State agrees to: 

1 . Mark the Santa Fe National Historic Trail with an initial set of markers furnished by the National 
Park Service according to the marking process identified in the Comprehensive Management and 
Use Plan for the Trail. 

2. Maintain the trail markers erected under item C.l. 

3. Administer, manage, protect, and maintain State-owned Trail sites and segments in accordance 
with the purpose of the Trail and the Comprehensive Management and Use Plan. 

4. Develop, operate, and maintain public access, interpretive and recreational opportunities, and 
visitor use facilities in accordance with the Comprehensive Management and Use Plan and 
relevant federal laws and Service policies, and recommend appropriate State facilities to house 
NPS interpretive media or to receive NPS technical assistance. 

5. Provide private landowners and nonfederal managing entities with cultural resource compliance 
assistance (i.e., National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, sections 106 and 110) 
and natural resource compliance assistance, including on-site technical evaluations and review of 
plans, designs, and mitigation measures. 

6. Identify trail projects on appropriate programming documents (e.g., SCORP) and seek funding 
from State appropriations and federal sources such as the Land and Water Conservation Fund or 
historic preservation grants (e.g., National Historic Landmark Program, Historic Preservation Fund) 
for acquiring, administering, managing, developing, operating, and maintaining State-owned Trail 
sites and segments or preserving privately owned sites on the National Register of Historic Places 
or designated as National Historic Landmark sites. 

7. Seek such additional State legislative authority as may be required for public use of, and to 
obligate State funds for management of, State-owned rights-of-way, sites, or other lands in the 
trail corridor. 

8. Promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary for proper administration and 
protection of State-owned or privately owned sites and segments. 

9. Seek cooperative agreements with owners of those private lands within the Trail corridor adjoining 
high potential State-owned sites and segments where necessary to ensure adequate protection or 
public access. 



128 



Appendix G: Provisions for Cooperative Management 



10. Consider acquiring necessary interests in those lands identified in item C.9. above where 
cooperative agreements with private landowners cannot be consummated. 

11. Work cooperatively to develop an interstate trail promotion task force to promote the whole Santa 
Fe National Historic Trail on a national and international basis. 

12. Help plan and establish historic branch trails. 

V. Nondiscrimination 

During the performance of this Memorandum of Understanding, the cooperators agree to abide by the terms 
of Executive Order 11246 on nondiscrimination and will not discriminate against any person because of race, 
color, religion, age, sex, or national origin. The cooperators will take affirmative action to ensure that 
applicants are employed without regard to their race, color, religion, age, sex, or national origin. No otherwise 
qualified individual will be denied access to a program or activity solely on the basis of a handicap. 

VI. Officials Not to Benefit 

No member of or delegate to Congress or resident Commissioner shall be admitted to any share or part of 
this Memorandum of Understanding or to any benefit that may arise therefrom, but this provision shall not 
be construed to extend to this Memorandum of Understanding if made with a corporation for its general 
benefit. 

VII. Limitation 

Nothing in this Memorandum of Understanding will be construed as limiting or affecting in any way the 
authority or legal responsibilities of the Service or the State to perform beyond the respective authority of each 
or to require either party to expend funds in any context or other obligation for future payment of funds or 
services in excess of those available or authorized for expenditure. 

VI I I. Amendment and Termination 

Amendments to this Memorandum of Understanding may be proposed by either party and shall become 
effective upon written approval by both parties. 

This Memorandum of Understanding will exist for a period of no longer than five years, at which time all 
parties to the Memorandum of Understanding will evaluate its benefits and determine if the Memorandum 
should be reaffirmed. It may be terminated or revised upon 60 days advance written notice given by one of 
the parties to the other, or it may be terminated earlier by mutual consent of both parties. 

IX. Execution 

In witness whereof, the parties hereto have executed this Memorandum of Understanding as of the last date 
written below: 



Regional Director Date Governor, Date 

Southwest Region State of 

National Park Service 



129 



APPENDIX H: REQUEST FORM FOR SITE/SEGMENT CERTIFICATION 

(Sample) 



I. Name or Description of Site or Segment:. 



n. Owner or Managing Authority Responsible for the Site/Segment 

Name Telephone _ 

Address 



Principal Contact. 



III. Location and Description 

Please enclose a general location map (such as a state or county highway map) and a detailed map (such as 
a topographical map or site brochure with map) showing the site/segment. Indicate the size of the site or 
length of the segment and the type of legal interest (ownership, lease agreement, etc.) that the owner or 
managing authority has over the lands involved. If the land is not owned in fee simple, enclose a copy of the 
lease, agreement, or other document that conveys the legal interest Describe the general environment of the 
site/segment, including present land use and any potential conflicts with its official inclusion as part of the 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail. 



IV. Facilities and Uses 

Describe the historical relationship of the site/segment to the Santa Fe Trail. Describe existing and proposed 
facilities and programs (if any) for interpreting this story (signs, museums, displays, brochures, audiovisual 
programs, etc.). Enclose copies of brochures, the text of interpretive signs (or readable photo(s)), and other 
appropriate materials illustrating trail interpretation (if any). Describe other historical themes interpreted at the 
site. Describe existing and proposed recreation facilities at the site or along the segment and permitted 
recreational use of the site/segment (if any). Describe feasible methods for making the site or segment 
accessible to people with disabilities or explain why accessibility is not practicable. Enclose a few photographs 
clearly showing the site/segment. 

V. Compliance 

In cooperation with the National Park Service, develop necessary environmental compliance documentation 
(which will be prepared by the National Park Service or others) for the purpose of ensuring that management 
and development will not have an adverse impact on the site/segment. All such documentation, and the 
responsibilities to be imposed on the site/segment and its owner or managing authority, must be accepted by 
the owner or managing authority prior to this certification becoming effective. 



130 



Appendix H: Request for Site/Segment Certification Form 



VI. Management Policies and Practices 

Describe or enclose the management policies or regulations that apply to public use of the site/segment. 
Specify any fees or permits required for site/segment use. Describe how maintenance is performed and by 
whom. Specify placement of the official historic trail markers. Enclose copies of any applicable management 
plans (optional). 

Vn. Affirmation 

I hereby affirm that: (1) I am duly authorized to represent the managing authority named above; (2) the 
site/segment is in existence and available for public use regardless of race, color, or creed; (3) the site/segment 
is administered without expense to the United States; (4) I or another representative of the managing authority 
will notify the National Park Service if there is a change in the status of the site/segment; and (5) the official 
Santa Fe National Historic Trail markers to be supplied by the National Park Service will be conspicuously 
posted and maintained at the site or along the segment. 

Signed Date 

Title 



Vffl. Certification 

On behalf of the Secretary of the Interior, I hereby certify the site/segment described in this application as 
a component of the Santa Fe National Historic Trail. The National Park Service will provide the official 
historic trail markers for the site. 

Signed Date 

Title 



131 



APPENDIX I: THREATENED OR ENDANGERED ANIMAL AND PLANT SPECIES 
POSSIBLY OCCURRING ALONG THE SANTA FE TRAIL 



Federal 



State 



Common Name 


Scientific Name 


Status 


Status 


Missouri 








Mammals 








Jackrabbit, black-tailed 


Lepus californicus 




rare 


Birds 








Owl, common barn 


Tyto alba 




endangered 


Reptiles 








Massasauga 


Sistrurus catenatus 








tergeminus 




endangered 


Skink, Great Plains 


Eumeces obsoletus 




rare 


Snake, western smooth 


Opheodrys vernalis 






green 


blanchardi 




endangered 


Fishes 








Chub, sicklefin 


Hybopsis meeki 


category 2 


rare 


Chub, sturgeon 


Hybopsis gelida 


category 2 


rare 


Killifish, plains 


Fundulus zebrinus 




rare 


Sturgeon, pallid 


Scaphirhynchus albus 


proposed 


endangered 


Plants 








Bugle weed 


Lycopus asper 




endangered 


Clover, prairie 


Pelalostemon multiflorum 




endangered 


Coneflower, rough 


Rudbeckia grandiflora var. grandiflora 


watch-listed 


Corn-salad, beaked 


Valerianella stenocarpa var. 








parviflora 




rare 


Dalea, nine-anther 


Dalea enneandra 




endangered 


Duckweed, star 


Lemna trisulca 




rare 


Elm, rock 


Ultnus thomasi 




watch-listed 


Figwort, hare 


Scrophularia lanceolala 




endangered 


Foxglove, auriculatc false 


Gerardia auriculata 


category 2 


watch-listed 


Grass, buffalo 


Buchloe dactyloides 




watch-listed 


Grass, bayonet 


Scirpus paludosus var. paludosus 




endangered 


Grass, long-leaved reed 


Calamovilfa longifolia var. longifolia 




watch-listed 


Grass, love 


Eragrostis replans 




endangered 


Ladies' tresses 


Spiranthes ovalis 




rare 


Looking glass, Venus' 


Specularia holzingeri 




endangered 


Loosestrife, tufted 


Lysimachia thyrsiflora 




endangered 


Monarda, dotted 


Monarda punctata var. 








occidentalis 




endangered 


Orchid, prairie white-fringed 


Platanthera leucophaea 


threatened 


endangered 


Raspberry, red 


Rubus idaeus var. slrigosus 




endangered 


Rush, Baltic 


Juticus balticus var. 








littoralis 




endangered 


Rush, small spike 


Eleocharis parvula var. 








anachaeta 




endangered 


Rye, wild 


Elyrnus interruptus 




endangered 


Salt grass, seashore 


Distchlis spicata 




endangered 


Sedge, awned 


Carex atherodes 




endangered 


Sedge, hairy-fruiied 


Carex trichocarpa 




rare 


Sedge, straw 


Carex slraminea 




endangered 


Sedge, triangular 


Carex triangularis 




endangered 


Spurge 


Euphorbia geyeri 




endangered 


Vetch 


Vicia minutiflora 




watch-listed 


Water wort 


Elaline triandra var. americana 




endangered 


Wormwood 


Art ernes ia glauca 




watch-listed 



132 



Appenidx I: Threatened or Endangered Species 



Common Name 



Scientific Name 



Federal 
Status 



State 
Status 



Kansas 

Mammals 

Ferret, black-footed 

Fox, swift 

Skunk, eastern spotted 

Birds 

Crane, whooping 
Curlew, Eskimo 
Curlew, long-billed 
Eagle, bald 
Falcon, peregrine 
Hawk, ferruginous 
Hawk, Swainson's 
Ibis, white-faced 
Plover, piping 
Plover, mountain 
Plover, snowy 
Plover, western snowy 

Shrike, migrant loggerhead 
Tern, least 

Reptiles 

Snake, checkered garter 
Snake, eastern hognose 
Snake, Kansas glossy 
Snake, northern redbelly 
Snake, Texas longnose 
Snake, western earth 
Turtle, alligator snapping 

Amphibians 

Frog, northern crawfish 
Toad, western green 
Peeper, northern spring 

Fishes 

Chub, flathead 
Chub, hornyhead 
Chub, redspot 
Chub, sicklefin 
Chub, speckled 
Chub, sturgeon 
Darter, Arkansas 
Lamprey, chestnut 
Madtom, Neosho 
Shiner, Arkansas River 
Shiner, silverband 
Sturgeon, lake 
Sturgeon, pallid 
Sucker, blue 

Clams 

Mussel, Neosho pearly 
Mussel, western fan-shell 
pearly 



Mustela nigripes endangered 

Vulpes velox category 2 

Spilogale putorius interrupta 



Grus americana endangered* 

Numenius borealis endangered 

Numenius americanus category 2 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus endangered 

Falco peregrinus endangered 

Buteo regalis category 2 

Buteo swainsoni category 2 
Plegadis chihi 

Charadrius melodus threatened 

Charadrius rnontanus category 2 
Charadrius alexandrinus 
Charadrius alexandrinus 

nivosus category 2 

Lanius ludovicianus migrans category 2 

Sterna antillarum endangered 



Thamnophus marcianus marcianus 

Heterodon platyrhinos latreille 

Arizona elegans elegans 

Storeria occipitomoculata 

Rhinocheilus lecontei tessellatus 

Virginia valeriae elegans 

Macroclemys temmincki category 2 



Rana areolata circulosa 
Bufo debilis insidior 
Hyla crucifer 



Hybopsis gracilis 

Nocomis big ut tat us 

Nocomis asper 

Hybopsis meeki category 2 

Hybopsis aestivalis tetranemus 

Hybopsis gelida category 2 

Etheostoma cragini 

Ichthyomyzon castaneous 

Noturus placidus category 1 

Notropis girardi category 2 

Notropis shurnardi 

Acipenser fulvescens category 2 

Scaphirhyncus albus proposed 

Cycleptus elongatus category 2 



Lampsilis rafinesqueana category 2 

Cyprogenia aberti category 2 



endangered 
threatened 

endangered** 



endangered** 
endangered 



threatened** 
threatened 

threatened** 



endangered* 



threatened 
threatened 
threatened 
threatened 
threatened 
threatened 



threatened** 

threatened 

threatened 



threatened 

threatened 

threatened 

endangered** 

endangered** 

threatened** 

threatened** 

threatened** 

endangered 

threatened** 

endangered 



* Federally designated critical species habitat 
** State designated critical species habitat 



133 



APPENDIXES 



Common Name 



Scientific Name 



Federal 
Status 



s i mi: 
Status 



Crustaceans 

Amphipod, Clanton's cave 

Insects 

Beetle, American burying 

Butterfly, regal fritillary 

Plants 

Cactus, lace 
Cholla tree 
Dalea, James' 
Foxglove, false auriculate 
Grama, black 
Lyre-leaf, green-eyes 
Mallow, narrowleaf globe 

Milkweed, Mead's 

Muhly, sand 

Orchid, western prairie 

fringed 
Primrose, Hartweg evening 
Raven 
Wild-buckwheat, longroot 



Stygobromus clantoni 



Nicrophorus americanus 
Speyeria idalia 



Echinocereus reichenbachii 
Opuntia irnbruata 
Dalea jamesii 
Tomanthera auriculata 
Bouteloua eriopoda 
Berlandiera lyrata 
Sphaeralcea angusiifolia 

cuspidata 
Asclepias meadii 
Muhlenberg ia arenicola 

Platanthera praeclara 
Pubescens 

Calylophus serrulatus 
Erigonum lachnogynutn 



category 2 



proposed 
category 2 



category 2 



threatened 



threatened 



*** 
*** 
*** 

»** 
*** 



*** 
*** 



***Kansas has no state laws protecting its native plant species; however, the listed plants are state-rare species along 
the Santa Fe Trail and are being tracked by the Kansas Natural Heritage Program. 



Oklahoma 

Mammals 

Ferret, black-footed 

Fox, swift 

Birds 

Crane, whooping 

Curlew, Eskimo 

Curlew, long-billed 

Eagle, bald 

Falcon, American peregrine 

Hawk, ferruginous 

Ibis, white-faced 

Plover, mountain 

Plover, piping 

Plover, western snowy 

Tern, interior least 

Reptiles 

Lizard, Texas horned 

Snake, Texas garter 

Fishes 

Shiner, Arkansas River 

Plants 
Unknown 



Mustela nigripes 
Vulpes velox 



Grus americana 
Numenius borealis 
Numenius americanus 
Haliaeetus leucocephalus 
Falco peregrinus anaium 
Buteo regalis 
Plegadis chihi 
Charadrius montanus 
Charadrius melodus 
Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus 
Sterna aniillarum 



P'lrynosoma cornutum 
Thamnophis sirlalis 



Notropis girardi 



category 2 

endangered 
endangered 
cateogry 2 
endangered 
endangered 
category 2 
category 2 
category 2 
threatened 
category 2 
endangered 

category 2 
category 2 

category 2 



endangered 
special concern 



endangered 
endangered 
special concern 
endangered 
endangered 
special concern 

special concern 
threatened 
special concern 
endangered 



special concern 
special concern 

special concern 



134 



Appenidx I: Threatened or Endangered Species 



Common Name 



Scientific Name 



Federal 

Status 



State 
Status 



Colorado 



Mammals 

Ferret, black-footed 

Beaver, American 

Birds 

Duck, wood 
Eagle, bald 
Goose, Ross's 
Longspur, McCown's 
Moorhen, common 
Owl, common barn 
Pelican, American white 
Plover, piping 
Prairie-chicken, lesser 
Sandpiper, upland 
Tanager, hepatic 
Tern, interior least 
Vireo, Bell's 

Woodpecker, ladder-backed 
Woodpecker, red-bellied 

Fishes 

Darter, Arkansas 

Sunfish, orange-spotted 

Plants 

Aster, Canadian River spiny 
Gentian, Colorado green 
Goldenweed, single-head 



Mustela nigripes 


endangered 




Castor canadensis 




sensitive 


Aix sponsa 




unique 


Haliaeetus leucocephalus 


endangered 


unique 


Chen rossii 




unique 


Calcarius mccownii 




unique 


Gallinula chloropus 




rare 


Tyto alba 




unique 


Pelecanus erythrorhynchos 




threatened 


Charadrius melodus 


threatened 


threatened 


Tympanuchus pallidicinctus 




threatened 


Bartramia longicauda 




rare 


Piranga flava 




rare 


Sterna antillarum 


endangered 


endangered 


Vireo bellii 




unique 


Dendrocopos scalaris 




unique 


Centurus carolinus zebra 




unique 


Etheostona cragini 




threatened 


Lepomis humilis 




rare 


Herricka horrida 




rare 


Frasera coloradensis 


category 2 


rare 


Haplopappus fremontii 


category 2 


rare 



New Mexico 



Mammals 

Marten, pine 

Mouse, meadow jumping 

Birds 

Crane, whooping 
Eagle, bald 
Falcon, peregrine 
Hawk, common black 
Hummingbird, broad-billed 
Kite, Mississippi 
Plover, piping 
Ptarmigan, white-tailed 
Sparrow, Baird's 
Vireo, Bell's 
Vireo, gray 

Reptile 

Snake, western ribbon 

Fishes 

Chub, speckled 

Dace, southern redbelly 

Minnow, Mississippi silvery 

Minnow, suckermouth 

Shiner, Arkansas River 

Stickleback, brook 



Martes americana 
Zapus hudsonius 



Grus americana 
Haliaeetus leucocephalus 
Falco peregrinus 
Buteogallus anthracinus 
Cynanthus latirostris 
Ictinia mississippiensis 
Charadrius melodus 
Lagopus leucurus 
Ammodramus bairdii 
Vireo bellii 
Vireo vicinior 



Thamnophis proximus 



Hybopsis aestivalis tetranemus 
Phoxinus erythrogaster 
Hybognathus nuchalis 
Phenocobius mirabilis 
Notropis girardi 
Culaea inconstans 



endangered 
endangered 
endangered 



threatened 



category 2 



endangered 
endangered 



endangered 
endangered 
endangered 
endangered 
endangered 
endangered 

endangered 
endangered 
endangered 
endangered 



endangered 



endangered 
endangered 
endangered 
endangered 
endangered 
endangered 



135 



APPENDIXES 



Common Name 



Scientific Name 



Federal 
Status 



State 
State's 



Snail 

Snail, Linnaeus's ramshorn 

Mollusks 

Mussel, paper-shell 
Pea-clam, circular 
Pea-clam, Lilljeborg's 
Pea-clam, Raymond's 
Pea-clam, wide 

Plants 

Aster, spiny 
Horsebrush, threadleaf 
Milkvetch, Matthew's woolly 

Milkvetch, one-flowered 



Gyraulus crista 

Anodonia imbecillls 
Musculium partumeium 
Pisidium lilljeborgi 
Musculium raymondi 
Musculium transversum 



Herreckia horrida 
Tetradymia fdifolia 
Astragalus mollisimus var. 

matthewsii 
Astragalus wittmanii 



endangered 



endangered 
endangered 
endangered 
endangered 
endangered 



sensitive 
sensitive 



sensitive 
sensitive 



136 



GLOSSARY 

Auto Tour Route: An auto four route is designated along the existing highway system. The purpose of the 
route is to allow reasonably direct travel parallelling the approximate route of the national historic trail, 
keeping in mind traveler convenience and year-round safety. All roads would have paved surfaces, 
accommodate two- wheel-drive vehicles, and be open year-round. The auto tour route would be marked with 
an identifying symbol using the official trail marker. 

Certification for Complementary Interpretive Programs: This is a procedure through which a cooperative 
relationship would be developed between the National Park Service and appropriate interpretive centers or 
museums, as long as these facilities were open to the public and managed by governmental agencies (federal, 
state, or local) or private nonprofit organizations. The entity could develop an association with the National 
Park Service if the requirements were met as discussed in the plan under the heading "Complementary 
Interpretive Programs." Program certification could apply to activities such as guided tours or publications that 
are offered by groups. 

Certification for Historic Sites or Route Segments: This is a procedure by which trail sites or segments 
on nonfederal land (that is, land owned or managed by state agencies, local governments, or private interests) 
would be officially included as components of the Santa Fe National Historic Trail by the secretary of the 
interior. The certification process can be found in this plan under "Site/Segment Certification Procedures," page 
44. Certification means that such sites or segments meet the preservation, interpretation, and recreational 
purposes of the National Trails System Act. 

Cooperative Agreement: A cooperative agreement, when it involves a federal agency, is defined as a legal 
instrument reflecting a relationship between the federal government and a state or local government or other 
recipient when the purpose is the transfer of funds, property, services, etc., to accomplish a public purpose 
of support or stimulation authorized by federal statute. Limited financial assistance as provided by the National 
Trails System Act will be provided by the National Park Service through its cooperative agreement process. 

Designated National Historic Trail: This is a trail designated by an act of Congress. Among others, it must 
meet all three of the following criteria: 

(1) It must be a trail or route established by historic use and must be historically significant as 
a result of that use. The route need not currently exist as a discernible trail to qualify, but its 
location must be sufficiently known to permit evaluation of public recreation and historical 
interest potential. 

(2) It must be of national significance with respect to any of several broad facets of American 
history, such as trade and commerce, exploration, migration and settlement, or military 
campaigns. To qualify as nationally significant, historic use of the trail must have had a far- 
reaching effect on broad patterns of American culture. 

(3) It must have significant potential for public recreational use or historical interest based on 
historic interpretation and appreciation. 

High-Potential Route Segments and High-Potential Historic Sites: High-potential route segments and 
historic sites are identified according to the following procedures, which are outlined in section 5(e) of the 
National Trails System Act. Each of these sites or segments should have the potential to provide opportunities 
to interpret the trail's historical significance and to provide high-quality recreation along a portion of the route 
having greater than average scenic values and also offering visitors the chance to vicariously share the 
experience of trail users. Criteria include historical significance, the presence of visible historic remains, scenic 
quality, and relative freedom from intrusion. The certification process will determine if these resources are to 
be included as official components of the national historic trail. 

Interagency Agreement: An interagency agreement is an agreement between the National Park Service and 
another federal agency to provide supplies or services or to provide for cooperative relationships between the 
parties. The U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and Soil Conservation Service, among others, 
will be appropriate parties for interagency agreements. 

137 



Glossary 

Memorandum of Understanding: A memorandum of understanding is defined as a mutual understanding 
between the National Park Service and a state or local government or another party that is set forth in a 
written document to which both parties are participants. A memorandum of understanding does not obligate 
funds. It is comparable to nonfederal "cooperative agreements" that may be negotiated between other parties. 

National Trails System: This is the trail system established by the National Trails System Act and consisting 
of national recreation trails, national scenic trails, and national historic trails (see page 3). 

National Historic Trail: This is a trail established in accordance with the provisions of the National Trails 
System Act. It follows as closely as possibly and practicable the original trails or routes of travel of national 
historical significance. Designation of such trails or routes shall be continuous, but the established or developed 
trail, and the acquisition thereof, need not be continuous on site. National historic trails shall have as their 
purpose the identification and protection of the historic routes and associated remnants and artifacts for public 
use and enjoyment. Only those selected land- and water-based components of a historic trail that are on 
federally owned lands and that meet the national historic trail criteria are included as federal protection 
components of a national historic trail. The appropriate secretary may certify other lands as protected segments 
of a historic trail upon application from state or local governmental agencies or private interests. Such 
segments must meet the criteria for national historic trails established in the National Trails System Act, as 
well as supplementary criteria as prescribed by the appropriate secretary. Protected segments are to be 
administered by such agencies or interests without expense to the United States. 



138 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 



BARRY, LOUISE 

1972 The Beginning of the West. Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society. 

BEACHUM, LARRY M. 

1982 William Becknell, Father of the Santa Fe Trail. El Paso: Texas Western Press. 

BROWN, WILLIAM E. 

1988 The National Park Service 1963 Historic Sites Survey, Santa Fe Trail. St. Louis: The Patrice 
Press. 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

1983 County and City Data Book. Washington, DC. 

GREGG, JOSIAH 

1967 The Commerce of the Prairies. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 

GREGG, KATE L., ed. 

1952 The Road to Santa Fe. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 

MOORHEAD, MAX L. 

1958 New Mexico's Royal Road: Trade and Travel on the Chihuahua Trail. Norman: University 
of Oklahoma Press. 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

1975 Final Environmental Assessment and Final Master Plan, Bent's Old Fort National Historic 
Site. Denver Service Center. 

1975 Environmental Assessment, Fort Earned National Historic Site, Earned, Kansas. Midwest 
Regional Office, Omaha. 

1975 Master Plan, Pecos National Monument, New Mexico. Southwest Regional Office, Santa Fe. 

1984 Draft General Management Plan I Environmental Assessment, Fort Union National 
Monument, New Mexico. Southwest Regional Office, Santa Fe. 

1985 Cultural Resources Management Guideline (NPS-28). Washington, DC. 

1986 Federal Assistance and Interagency Agreements Guideline (NPS-20). Washington, DC. 

NEW MEXICO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND TOURISM DEPARTMENT 

1988 New Mexico Fact Book. Economic Development Division, Santa Fe. 

RITTENHOUSE, JACK D. 

1978 The Santa Fe Trail: A Historical Bibliography. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico 
Press. 

SIMMONS, MARC 

1986 Following the Santa Fe Trail: A Guide for Modern Travelers. Santa Fe: Ancient City Press. 

STOCKING, HOBART E. 

1971 The Road to Santa Fe. New York: Hastings House. 



139 



Selected Bibliography 



U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, U.S DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

1970 The National Atlas of the United States of America. Washington, DC. 

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 

1987 Kansas Statistic Abstract. Lawrence, KS: Institute for Public Policy and Business Research. 

WEBER, DAVID J. 

1982 The Mexican Frontier 1821-1846: The American Southwest under Mexico. Albuquerque: 
University of New Mexico Press. 



140 



PLANNING TEAM AND CONSULTANTS 



PLANNING TEAM 

Denver Service Center 

John C. Paige, Team Captain 

Michael Spratt, Former Team Captain 

Jere Krakow, Historian 

Bruce A. McCraney, Landscape Architect 

Lynn Peterson, Natural Resource Specialist 

Roberta McDougall, Interpretive Specialist 

R. Michael Madell, Sociologist 

Southwest Regional Office 

David M. Gaines, Chief, Branch of Long Distance Trails 

Midwest Regional Office 

Thomas Gilbert, Regional Trails Coordinator 

Rocky Mountain Regional Office 

James Riddle, Former Regional Trails Coordinator 
Mike Snyder, Chief of Planning 



CONSULTANTS 

Denver Service Center 

Ronald W. Johnson, Supervisor, Branch of Planning, Central Team 
Keith Payne, Landscape Architect 

Southwest Regional Office 

Douglas D. Faris, Assistant Regional Director for Planning 

Neil Mangum, Chief, Division of History 

Melody Webb, Former Chief, Division of History 

Daniel Murphy, Writer/Editor, Division of Interpretation and Visitor Services 

Joseph Sanchez, Chief, Spanish Colonial Research Center 

Superintendents 

John B. Arnold, Former Superintendent, Fort Larned National Historic Site 
Donald C. Hill, Superintendent, Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site 
Douglas McChristian, Former Superintendent, Fort Union National Monument 
Harry C. Myers, Superintendent, Fort Union National Monument 
Linda Stoll, Superintendent, Pecos National Monument 

Santa Fe National Historic Trail Advisory Council 

Santa Fe Trail Association 

Marc Simmons 

Mapping and Historic Site Consultants 

Gregory Franzwa 
Bonita Oliva 

New Mexico Economic Development and Tourism Department 
Mike Pitel 



141 





As the nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has responsibility for most of our nationally 
owned public lands and natural and cultural resources. This includes fostering wise use of our land and water resources, 
protecting our fish and wildlife, preserving the environmental and cultural values of our national parks and historical 
places, and providing for the enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The department assesses our energy and 
mineral resources and works to ensure that their development is in the best interests of all our people. The department 
also promotes the goals of the Take Pride in America campaign by encouraging stewardship and citizen responsibility 
for the public lands and promoting citizen participation in their care. The department also has a major responsibility for 
American Indian reservation communities and for people who live in island territories under U.S. administration. 

Publication services were provided by the graphics and editorial staffs of the Denver Service Center. 
NPSD-3A May 1990 



•U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1 990-0 773-038/00033